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Th e Antiquihes of the Spani: Arabs have, for many ages, continued unheeded or unknown. The annals of past centuries 
scarcely deign to mention them and the descriptions of modern pens but imperfectly supply the place of the pencil. 
Accurate deUneations, so essenJ to render them intelligible, might have been expected from the enlightened natives of the 
Peninsula, whose artists and a.quarians have vied with the most celebrated of other countries. The task, however, was 
supinely deferred, or feebly atmpted, while prejudice, the sad inheritance of nations, was actively employed in demohshmg 
the works of infidels, whom i(vas accounted both pious and popular to deride. 

The suffrages of the discerKig few, and especially of Bayer and Casiri, at length contributed to remove, or at least to 
mitigate, this prejudice, and t arrest the progress of destruction. In consequence of the representations made by these pro- 
foundly learned and virtuous ,en, the Royal Academy of St. Ferdinand was commissioned by the Spamsh Government to 
send two architects under th(direction of a Captain of Engineers, with instructions to make drawmgs of the Palace of 
Alhamri, and of the Mosquaf Cordova. After a lapse of several years, the .joint labours of the three Academicians were 
published at Madrid, in the ;ar 1780, m a folio volume intituled, Antiguedadas Arabes de Espana ; containing about six- 
teen plates of Arabic design, together with a few pages of letter-press. Some of the inscriptions in this publication were 
translated by the accurate Oiri. Such was the greatest progress made, to the end of the eighteenth century, in exploring 
the antiquities of the polhed and enlightened people, who occupied the Peninsula, during a period of nearly eight 
hundred years. 

The interesting but impffect descriptions of the remains of Arabian Art, exhibited in the volumes of some modern tra- 
vellers, as existing in the oce renowned Moliammedan cities of Granada, Cordova, and Seville, excited in the author an 
ardent desire to vkit them He accordingly embarked for Spain, and arrived at Cadiz early in May, in the year 1802 ; 
whence he proceeded to Canada, through lower Andalusia.* The Governor of the AlhamrS, desirous that the knowledge 
of its splendid architectura remains should be accurately transmitted to posterity, obligingly facilitated the author s access to 
that royal palace, at all hurs of the day ; while he was employed in the agreeable task of measuring and delineating its 
interior works. Equal fa.lities were offered at Cordova, the remains of whose celebrated Mosque and Bridge are delineated 
in the former part of the resent volume. Seven years were unremittingly devoted to these delightful pursuits ; and since 
the author's return to Engand in 1809, nearly seven years more have been wholly given to preparing for publication the 
present work. 

The admirers of the Ats are here presented with the resuk of fourteen years continued labour, executed at an expense of 
'many thousand pounds ;-in the hope that, by the union of the graphic art with the descriptions of the engravings annexed, 
such facihties will be aforded, as shall enable the reader to form an accurate estimate of the very high state of excellence, 
to which the Spanish ^rabs attained in the Fine Arts, while the rest of Europe was overwhelmed with ignorance and 
barbarism. 

* In iustice to the memory of n eminent and noble patron of the Arts, the late Earl of Bristol, the author with pleasure records, that his Lordship had it in contemplation to 
.end twt Roi: ardsTsTo Jranda, to make designs o'fthe Palace of Alhamr., and to publish them at his own expense. The Earl of Bristol rehnquished the .dea, only on 
being informed by the letter of ariend who was visiting that city, tliat the author had anticipated his munificent intention. 



A TABLE OF THE PLATES 



PART L 

DESCRIPTION OF ANTIQUITIES AT CORDOVA. 



Fiatc. 



I. Pliin of the Mosque of Cordova in its original State 
II. Plan of the Mosque of Cordova, in its present State - 

III. Elevation of tlie Mosque at Cordova 

IV. A View in the Garden belonging to the Mosque at Cordova 
V. A General View of the Interior of the Mosque at Cordova 

VI. Elevation of the Gate of the Sanctuary of the Koran 
VII. Exterior Angle of the Mosque - - . _ 

Vni. A Cufic Inscription in the Place appropriated to the per- 
formance of Ablutions in the Mosque at Cordova 
VIII. No. 2. A Cufic Inscription on the Additicnis made to the 
Mosque, by order of the Khalif Alhakam 
IX. The Bridge of Cordova - - - . _ 



PART II. 

A DESCRIPTION OF ANTIQUITIES AT GRANADA. 



page. 

i 
ib. 

2 

3 

ib. 

4 

ib. 



column. 
1 

2 
2 
1 

ih. 
1 



ib. 

Q 



2 
1 



X 
XI 
XII 
XIII 
XIV. 
XV. 
XVI. 
XVII. 
XVIII. 
XTX. 
XX. 
XXI. 
XXII. 
XXIII. 
XXIV. 
XXV. 
XXVI. 
XXVII. 
XXVIII. 
XXIX. 
XXX. 

XXXL 
XXXII. 
XXXIII. 
XXXIV. 
XXXV. 
XXXVI. 
XXXVII. 
XXXVIII. 
XXXIX. 
XL. 

XLT. 

XLII. 
XLIII. 
XLIV. 

XLV. 
XLVI. 



The Royal Palace and Fortress of Alhamra, at Granada 
A General Plan of the Fortress of the Alhamra 
A Ground Plan of the Royal Palace of Alhamra 
The principal Entrance to the Alhamra 
The Gate of Judgment - - - . 

Elevation of the Ancient Gate of Judgment 
Porch of the Gate of Judgment 

A Section of the Gate of Judgment ... 
Elevation of the Puerta del Vino 
Plan and Section of the Great Cistern 
The Hall of the Baths .... 
A Section of the Hall of the Batlis 
Ceiling- of the Hall of the Baths 

The King's Bath - . . . . 

The Queen's Bath - - - . . 

Concert Room of the Baths 
A Section of the Baths in the Alhamra 
A Ground Plan of the Baths in the Alhamrfi 
Elevation of a small Portico near the Chapel 
North side of the Pateo del Agua, or Great Fountain 
Elevation of the Portico on the North Side of the Pateo 
del Agua 

A View of the South Side of the Pateo del Apua 
Elevation of an Alcove in the Pateo del Aaua 
A Perspective View of the Court and Fountain of Lions 
Elevation of the Fountain of Lions 
Plan of the Bason of the Fcnmtain of Lions 
Side Elevation of the Lions' Court and Fountain 
Entablature in the Court of the Lions 
Hall of the Two Sisters - . . . 

Hall of the Abencerraoes - . . _ 

A Perspective View of the Golden Saloon, or Hall of 

Ambassadors - - . . _ 

Section and Elevation of the Interior of the Golden Saloon 
A Moorish Battle- Piece, from a Painting in the Alhamra 
A Lion-Hunt, from an Arabian Painting in the Alhamra 
A Boar- Hunt, from a Painting in the Alhamra 
An Arabian Council, from a Painting in the Alhamra 
Moorish Costumes, from an Arabian Painting- in tlie 
Alhamra - - . _ _ 



i 


1 


ib. 


2 


8 


1 


ib. 


2 


ih. 


ih. 


0 


1 


ib. 


2 


10 


1 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


ih. 


ih. 


2 


ih. 


ih. 


ih. 


ih. 


11 


1 


ih. 


ih. 


ib. 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


ib. 


2 


ib. 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


12 


] 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


2 


13 


1 


ih. 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


2 


ib. 


ih. 


14 


1 


]5 


1 


ih. 


ib. 


ib. 


2 


ih. 


ib. 


16 


1 



ih. ib. 



Plate. 

XLvn.-i . 1 

T7T ir f Arabian Vasind Niches, preserved in the Alhamra 
ALV i ! i. J 

XLIX. Mosaic Pavem in the Dressing- Room of the Sultana 
L. Mosaic OrnaaJ in the North Side of the Lions' Fountain 
LI. Mosaic OrnamLi the South Side of the Lions' Fountain 
LII. Mosaic in Dadf the Hall of the Two Sisters 
LIII. Mosaic in Dadclthe Door of the Hall of the Two Sisters 
LIV. I\losaic in Dadd Recess in the Hall of the Two Sisters 
LV. Mosaic in the H^of the Abencerrages 
LVL Mosaic in Dado ^Vindow, in the Golden Saloon 
LVILi 

LVIII I -^^^^'""^^ Dac^f \\^indow, in the Golden Saloon 

LIX. Mosaic in Dado o^alcony, in the Golden Saloon 
LX. Ceiling of Gallery! the Golden Saloon 
LXL Mosaic in Dado o|^lndow, in the North Side of the 
Golden Saloon - 
LXII. Mosaic in Dado of ^East Side of the Tower of Comares 
LXIII. Mosaic in Portico o|k; Generalitfe 
LXIV. A Mosaic Dado, frda Fragment in the Alhamra 
LXV. Various Mosaics, frqthe Alhamra 

LXVI. An Arabian Ornamel at the Entrance of the Tower of 
Comares - |_ 
LXVII. Ornament in the Waltit the Entrance of the Tower of 
Comares 

LXVIII. Ornament in the Sidef Doorway, at the Entrance of 
the Tower of Comai - - . _ 

LXIX. Pannel Ornament in tl Side of Doorway, at the En- 
trance of the Tower Comares _ 
LXX. A Celling {n Outline, {the. Tower of Comares 
LXXL An Arabian Ornament ;the Tower of Comares 
LXXII. Ornament in the Golderialoon, or Hail of Ambassadors 
LXXIII. 1 Ornaments in the Wallf two Windows, in the North 
LXX IV. j Front of the Golden Qoon 
LXXV."j 

!f^l\ \ ^'"""^""^^ ^^'"^ Sides o>,Vindows, in the Golden Saloon 
LAA VII.j 

^ ^T""^ Ornament and iWbesque, in the Alhamra 
t\ V V ^ ^""""'^ Ornament and I,criptions, in the Alhamra 
LAAA. Cufic Inscriptions in the Glden Saloon, or Hall of Am- 
bassadors - _ | _ 

}fl^^- ^ascriptions and Orn.1ent, in the Golden Saloon 

LAAAII. Cufic Inscriptions in the Gden Saloon 
LXXXIII. The first Six Verses of the Inscription on the Bason of 

the Fountain of Lions . _ _ _ 

LXXXIV. The last Six Verses of the iscription on the Bason of 

the Fountain of Lions ■ _ . . 

T^™y- I"^c' iptions on the T(^er of Comares 

LA AX a. Pannel Ornaments and Insclptions in the Hall of the 
Two Sisters 

J^XX^Ju. ^=-^1'— P-ts and Orients in the ilham a ' 
T V '."^f ^^'P'^''^' ""^ - Alhamra . 

11' f Z"" ^^'1'-^ of:Jeneraliffe, at Granada 

AC. A Ground Plan of the Gener^ife, at Granada 
XCI Elevation and Ground Plan oithe Portico of the Gene- 
raliffc, at Granada 

ifrn!' t ^"^'^^^'^ Generaliffe " - 

XC V t " Vi"- the Generalifte 

XCIV. A Ceihno- the Generaliffe 

XCV. A Perspective View of the Gari„ of the Generaliffe 
XCVI. Elevation of the Casa de Carbo,, or House of Charcoal, 

at Granada 
XCVn. Plan of the Casa de Carbon 



page, column. 



16 


I 


•7 

lb. 


ib. 


ib. 


2 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


ib. 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


ib. 


17 


1 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


iij. 


ib. 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


ih. 


ib. 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


2 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


ih. 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


18 


1 


ib. 


ib. 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


ih. 


ih. 


ib. 


ih. 


ih. 


ih. 


ih. 


ib. 


2 


ib. 


ib. 


19 


I 



ib. 

ib. 
ib. 

ib. 
ib. 

ih. 
20 
ib. 

ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ih. 
ih. 

21 

ib. 



ib 

ih. 
ib. 

2 
ib. 
ib. 
1 

ib. 

ib. 

ih. 

2 

ib. 

ib. 

2 
ib. 



THE 



ARABIAN ANTIQUITIES OF SPAIN. 



PART I. 



A DESCRIPTION OF ANTIQUITIES AT CORDOVA. 



PLATE I. 

PLAN OF THE MOSQUE OF CORDOVA, IN ITS ORIGINAL STATE. 

This noble specimen of Arabian Architecture was begun by 
Abdurrahman I. and finished by his son and successor, Hi- 
sham ; subsequent khaUfs of Cordova enlarged the building 
as often as the increase of population required^ until it assumed 
the general form in which it now appears/'' The mosque is 
of a quadrangular form, six hundred and twenty feet in length 
from north to south, and four hundred and forty feet in 
breadth from east to west ; it was originally surrounded by 
four streets, which were designed to prevent any other build- 
ing from coming in contact with it. Of the twenty-one doors, 
which it is said to have originally had, five only are now 
remaining ; they were all covered with brass plates of most 
delicate workmanship. 

Of the six hundred and twenty feet, which compose the 
length of the mosque, two hundred and ten were appropriated 
on the north side, to the formation of a court, communicating 
by means of a gate of modern erection, and known by the 
appellation of the Gate of Pardon. Nineteen aisles, each of 
about three hundred and fifty feet in length, by fourteen feet 
in breadth, run parallel from north to south througli the in- 
terior of the edifice ; and a similar number, not quite so 
broad, extends from east to west. These aisles are formed 
by an immense number of columns, the arrangement of which 
produces a most striking effect, that must have been still more 
magnificent, before the building underwent any alterations. 

Explanation of the References in the Plan. 

A. The Maksw'a, or sanctuary, that is, the prhicipal apartment in which the Koran 

was deposited. At present it is a chapel belonging to the Conde de Oropesa, 
and is usually called the Za7icarron. 

B. The place where the pulpit stood, from which the Mufti explained the \a.w to the 

Moslems. The pulpit itself, during the time when the mosque was in all its 
splendour, was co mposed of ebony, sandal, aloes, and other most precious 
woods. 



* For an historical account of the Mosque at Cordova, the reader is referred to the " History 
of the Mahometan Empire in Spain," Part I. Chap. V. Sect. 1. pp. ITS — 183; where it is de- 
scribed from the narratives of contemporary Arabian writers, who had seen it in all its splendour. 



C. The lodgings of the priests, and other attendants belonging to the mosque. They 

are now converted into chapels. 

D. The Mikrab, or cliancel, which was entered only by the Imams or priests, and 

other persons engaged in the sacred office. 

E. The part which separated the great men from the rest of the people. 

F. Four columns, in the centre of which the Khalifs took their seats. 

G. The place appropriated to the people. 

H. Additions subsequently made to the edifice. 

I. Doorways or entrances, originally twenty-one in number, according to some 

Arabian authors ; though others assert that there were not more than nine. 
All the doors, however, wei'c covered with the choicest Andalusian brass, in 
the richest profusion. 

J. The space allotted for the performance of ablutions, previously to entering the 
mosque. 

K. The Portico, where the Arabians left their habouches, or slippers, when they en- 
tered the mosque. 
L The Garden of the mosque. 
M. Fountains. 

N. Cisterns or reservoirs of water. 

The faint line, which goes round the whole plan, exhibits 
its outer wall or boundary, — a low and massive structure, 
crowned with crenated battlements. 



PLATE XL 

PLAN OF THE MOSqUE OF CORDOVA IN ITS PRESENT STATE. 

After the conquest of Cordova in 1236, St. Ferdinand con- 
verted this mosque into a cathedral ; and it preserved its 
ancient plan until the time of the Emperor Charles V. Jn the 
year 1528, the Spaniards began to disfigure its symmetry by 
modern erections, which continued to be made in succeeding 
reigns, in order to convert it more effectually into a temple for 
celebrating the solemn rites of the Christian religion; by which 
injudicious scheme both the Moorish and Christian architec- 
tures are deprived of everything like unity of design. In vain 
have remonstrances been repeatedly made at different times, by 
the lovers of the arts, nay, even by royalty itself, against these 
misplaced and tasteless alterations. Regardless of these repre- 
sentations, the Chapter of the cathedral have, to the present 
time, persisted in retrenching from the details of the interior, 
or in adding others executed in a totally different style. Of 
this description is the choir, erected in the centre of the whole 



2 



A DESCRIPTION OF ANTIQUITIES AT CORDOVA. 



edifice ; and which, as Mr. Swinburne has justly remarked, 
were it in any other church, would deserve great praise for 
the Gothic grandeur of the plan, the loftiness of its dome, the 
exquisite carving of the stalls, and the elegance and high 
finishing of the arches and ornaments. But, placed as it is in 
the middle of the Arabian structure, it destroys all unity of 
design ; darkens the rest ; and renders confused every idea 
of the original general effect of the building. 

Many are the chapels, erected in various parts between the 
pillars ; which indeed form so many distinct churches in the 
midst of the old cathedral, interrupt the enfilade, and block 
up the passage. In one place, columns have been removed, 
in order to adorn these same chapels: in another, we are 
credibly informed, pieces of the beautiful timber- work, that 
supports the roof, have been taken away for the purpose of 
making musical instruments, especially guitars, for which use 
this kind of wood has been recommended, as being pecu- 
liarly proper! ! ! It may readily be conceived, how such vile 
spoliations as these, repeated too for successive centuries, 
must have altered the original simplicity of the mosque ; yet, 
notwithstanding all these impediments, the spectator cannot 
fail to be struck with admiration, on beholding the interior 
of this magnificent structure, in which the oriental style is 
every where the prevailing characteristic. No coup-d'oeil, it 
has justly been remarked, can be more extraordinary than 
that taken in by the eye, when placed in such parts of the 
church as afford a clear view down the aisles at right angles, 
uninterrupted by chapels and modern erections. Equally 
wonderful is the appearance, when the spectator looks from 
the points, which present to him all the rows of columns and 
arches in an oblique line. 

As the preceding Plate exhibited a view ol the mosque, 
such as it was planned by Abdurrahman I. , who was fortunate 
enough to meet with an architect capable of carrying his 
sublime ideas into execution, it may not be displeasing to the 
lovers of the Arts, to have another plan of the same edifice, 
in which its various additions and alterations are delineated. 

Explanation of the References to Plate II. 

A. The Dean's gate. 

B. Another gate. 

C. The Hall of Ecclesiastical Audience. 

D. The Gate of Pardon. 

E. The Inspector's chamber. 

FF. Bureaus or desks, belonging to the Chapter, 

G. The Gate of the great drain. 

H. The Hall of Tithes. 

I. The Gate of the round grate. 
K. St. Catherine's gate. 

L. Outer line of the chapels. 

M. A spacious passage. 

N. Outer line of the old building. 

O. The Tower of the mosque, which contained the Zancarron, or sanctuary of the 
Koran. 

PPP. The Garden of the Mezquita or mosque, of which a partial view is given in 
Plate IV. 

QQ. The body of the Cathedral, where divine service is publicly performed. 

The subjoined figures refer to the other parts of the edi- 
fice, including the Chapels : 

1. The Chapel of Christ in an agony. 

2. The Chapel of Saint Ambrose. 

3. The Chapel of Saint Augustin 



4. The Gate of Saint Stephen. 

5 The Chapel of our Lady of the Snow (Capilla de Nuestra Sehora Nevada ). 

6. The Chapel of Saint Simon and Saint Jude. 

7. The Chapel of our Lady of the Conception. 

8. The Chapel of Saint Antony, abbot. 

9. The Chapel of the Holy Trinity. 
10. The Chapel of Saint Acacius 
n. The Door of Saint Michael. 

12. The condemned Door. 

13. The Chapel of Saint Lawrence 

14. Door belonging to the Bishop's palace. 

15. The Chapel of Saint Ildefonso. 

16. The Chapel of Saint Bartholomew. 

17. The Chapel of Saint PhiUp and Saint James. 

18. The Chapel of Saint Peter, usually called del Zancarron. 

19. The Chapel of the Eucharist. 

20. The Chapel of Cardinal Salazar, at present the Great Sacristy. • 

21 . The Chapel of Santa Ignez. 

22. The Chapel of Saint Antony. 

23. The Sacristy del Punto. 

24. The Chapel of the Incarnation. 

25. The Chapel of Saint Clement, now used as a Chapter-house. 

26. A parochial Chapel, with its Sacristy. 

27. The Chapel of Saint Helena. * 

28. The Chapel of the Patron Saints, Accidus and Victor. 

29. The Chapel of the Resurrection. 

30. A parish door. 

31. The Chapel of the Assumption. 

32. The Chapel of the Nativity. 

33. The condemned Door. 

34. The Chapel of Saint Joseph. 

35. The Chapel of the Conception. 

36. The Bishop's Chapel. 

37. The Chapel of the Annunciation. 

38. A Door. 

39. The Chapel of Saint Nicholas, bishop. 

40. The Chapel of Baptism. 

41. The Chapel of Saint John the Baptist. 

42. The Chapel of the Conception. 

43. Door de los Juanes. 

44. The Chapel of Saint Anne. 

45. The Chapel of Saint Antony of Padua. 

46. The principal Parish door. 

47. The Chapel of the Descent from the Cross. 

48. The Chapel of Saint Ursula. 

49. The Chapel founded by the Inca, Garcilasso de la Vega, whose remains are 

interred therein. 

50. The Chapel of our Lady of the Rosary. 

51. The Chapel of the Epiphany. 

52. The Chapel of Saint Michael. 

53. The Chapel of our Lady of Antigua. 

54. The Chapel of the Magdalen. 

55. The Chapel of Saint Stephen. x 

56. The Chapel of Saint Eulogius. 

57. The Gate of Blessing-. 

58. The Altar of the Holy G uardian Angel. 

59. The Altar of Saint Christopher. 

60. The Altar of Saint Barbara. 

61. ******* 

62. The Altar of the Holy Cross. 

63. The Altar of Saint Philip and Saint James. 

64. The Altar of Saint Mary. 

65. The Altar of Saint Lucia. 

66. The Altar of Christ del Punto. 

67. The Altar of Saint Antony of Padua. 

68. The Altar of the Incarnation. 

69. The Altar of Saint Andi ■ew. 

70. The Altar of the Conception. 



PLATE III. 

ELEVATION OF THE MOSQJJE AT CORDOVA. 

Each of the four fronts of this beautiful edifice, exhibits low 
walls, remarkable for their solidity, all of which are crowned 
with crenated battlements. Each of these fronts, however. 



\ 



A DESCRIPTION OF ANTIQUITIES AT CORDOVA. 



differs from the other, by its height and ornaments. Our view 
presents a correct elevation of the building : the massive 
structure of the walls, and die crescent or horse-shoe form of 
the arch, which mark the first of the three periods into which 
the Moorish architecture is divided, are here seen to consi- 
derable advantage ; while the sohdity of the whole is relieved 
by the light appearance imparted by the battlements. 



PLATE IV. 

A VIEW IN THE GARDEN BELONGING TO THE MOSQUE AT CORDOVA. 

The garden, attached to the mosque, occupies an inclosure 
of about two hundred and ten feet in front of the building, — 
nearly one-fourth of the entire space appropriated to it. 

This garden is surrounded, on three sides, by a portico 
supported by seventy-two columns : and a refreshing cool- 
ness is constantly maintained here by the water of three 
fountains, with which the Moslems anciently performed their 
ablutions, as well as by the delightful shade afforded by a 
great number of cypress, palm, and orange trees. It is, in 
fact, a kind of garden in the air, raised over a vast cistern. 
Four or five feet of earth suffice for the support and growth 
of those beautiful trees ; among which, there are numerous 
orange trees, from thirty-five to forty feet in height, and palm 
trees, sixty feet high. In the centre of this perpetual verdure, 
and in front of the mosque itself, which forms the fourth or 
northern face of the garden, stands a square tower, containing 
numerous windows, and terminated by a cupola or rotunda. 
It serves as a steeple. All the apertures in this kind of cloister 
are erected in the Roman style of architecture, and are orna- 
mented with upwards of one hundred columns. 

This garden is the most agreeable promenade of Cordova : 
its principal gate, termed the Gate of Pardo?i, is of modern 
construction. 



PLATE V. 

A GENERAL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE MOSQUE AT CORDOVA. 

Nothing can be more striking than the view presented to the 
spectator, on his first entrance into this magnificent temple ; 
which has, not inaptly, been compared to a forest of columns 
disposed in the form of a quincunx. The principal lines, or 
features, of its internal distribution, are formed by the thirty- 
eight aisles or naves, delineated in Plate I. and described in 
page 1. 

An eye, accustomed to the lofty and imposing appearance 
of our splendid churches, views with surprise the humility 
of this mosque : for the height, from the floor to the ceiling, 
is only thirty-five feet. In the language of fiction, the former 
might be attributed to a race of giants, and the latter to a 
generation of pigmies : but the same principle of attention to 



3 

the interior, regardless of the general external appearance, 
which marks the other Moorish structures, is here distinctly 
to be observed. While pubhc utility has studiously been 
provided for, all that was costly and curious has been reserved 
for the interior : and the mind, upon examination and reflec- 
tion, remains satisfied with the appearance of strength, con- 
venience, and grand simplicity. 

The columns at present are about eight hundred and fifty 
in number; and are formed of granite, porphyry, jasper, and 
other marbles, exhibiting an assemblage of various and bril- 
liant colours. The whole, taken together, presents a scene 
so truly unique, that the visitor is at a loss, whether to admire 
most their number, or their richness : but, from the variety 
of styles prevailing in the different parts of which these 
columns are composed, it is evident that they originally 
belonged to different nations and ages. Many of them were 
taken from Roman edifices ; which being of various lengths, 
the Arabian architect supplied the want of a sufficient quan- 
tity of capitals and bases, by imitating those which were before 
his eyes. 

The columns are all nearly of an equal length, being about 
nine feet between the base and the capital : the thickness of 
the shaft is pretty equal throughout^ being about eighteen 
inches in diameter. The Capitals were, originally, of the 
Corinthian order, and were beautifully sculptured, as would 
appear by the few that are still entire ; and such capitals, as 
were supplied by the Arabian architect, are for the most part 
imitations of the same order. From these capitals rise arches, 
which spring from one inter-columniation to another; and, 
from their crescent, or horse-shoe form, as well as the ara- 
besques, inscriptions, and other embellishments, present an 
entirely Oriental character. Above the first arch is placed a 
second, considerably narrower, and connecting it with the 
square pillars that support the timber- work of the roof, which 
is not less curious in its execution than the other parts of the 
building. It was put together in the time of Abdurrahman I., 
and subsists to this day unimpaired, though partially con- 
cealed by the plaster-work of the modern arches. The beams 
contain many thousands of cubit feet : the bottoms and sides 
of the cross-beams have been carved and painted of various 
colours, principally red, and with different figures ; the rafters 
also are painted red. Such parts as retain the paint, are un- 
touched by worms : the other parts, where the paint no 
longer remains, are so little affected that the decay of a thou- 
sand years is scarcely perceptible ; and, what is rarely to be 
seen in an edifice of such antiquity, no cobwebs whatever are 
to be traced here. The wood employed for the timber- work, 
is that of the alerce, a species between the cedar and the pine 
(the Pi?tiis Larix or White Larch, we believe), which is re- 
puted to be incorruptible. The vicinity of Cordova formerly 
abounded with this kind of trees, a forest of which is said to 
have stood on the west bank of the Guadalquivir; though 
not the smallest vestige of it is now to be found. The timber 

* Some of these were brought from the ruins of Carthage ; and by one of those remarkable 
instances of mutability, which occur in the history of nations, vestiges of the colony founded by 
Dido are to be seen, in the nineteenth century, supporting an Arabian temple in Spain ! 



4 



A DESCRIPTION OF ANTIOUITIES AT CORDOVA. 



work of the roof is further covered with lead : and the whole 
has been executed w4th such precision and taste, that it may 
justly be pronounced a chef-d'oeuvre of art, both with respect 
to the arrangement of its different parts, as well as to the 
extent and solidity of the whole. 

On a slight inspection of Plate V. it may perhaps strike 
the observer, that the general effect would have been im- 
proved, and the perspective heightened, by the introduction 
of a little more light from above : but, had such a correction 
been made, our engraving would not have been a faithful re- 
presentation of the solemn and majestic interior of the Mosque 
at Cordova. A " dim, religious light" is admitted into it, 
by the doors on the sides, and from several small cupolas 
above; which falls upon some parts of this immense edifice, 
while others are left in awful darkness. Individuals, walking 
through this forest of columns may, by an ardent imagination, 
not unaptly be compared to wandering spirits ; — their persons 
may readily be distinguished, but their footsteps cannot be 
heard. 



PLATE VI. 

ELEVATION OF THE GATE OF THE SANCTUARY OF THE KORAN. 

By the several alterations and additions, which were made at 
different times by the Spanish Arabs, they had divided the 
mosque into four parts, marked out by two lines of clustered 
pillars, crossing each other at right angles. Three of these 
portions were allotted to the common people and to the women : 
the fourth, which was in the south-east angle, was appro- 
priated to the Imams or priests and great men. In this last 
division was the great Kiblah or Sanctuary, better knoMTi by 
the appellation of the Zancarron, in which the Koran was 
deposited. Its door was in front of the great gate, at the end 
of the principal aisle : and the architecture and ornaments of 
this Sanctuary, as well as the throne of Almansur which faced 
it, are very different from those employed in the other parts 
of the edifice ; all the skill and taste of the Moors appear to 
have been lavished on it, in the richest profusion. 

Two rows of columns, about six feet in height, rise one 
above another, and support the screen before this Sanctuary. 
The columns are chiefly of verd antique, or red marble veined 
with white ; the pilasters are of red or white marble ; and 
the capitals are of white marble, gilt in many places. The 
arabesques and other ornaments of the timber-work of the 
roof, as well as those of the pilasters, are very fine, and bear 
a great resemblance to the sculptures in the Alhamra at 
Granada. 

The Gate of the Zancarron, of which our plate represents 
the elevation, is indeed an assemblage of beauties rarely to 
be equalled. As it very closely resembles the fine specimens 
of Arabian architecture to be seen in Upper Egypt, and is 
uncjuestionably in a different style from the rest of the Moorish 
architecture, it was probably executed in imitation of the 
palaces at Damascus and Baghdad : it certainly is the finest 



specimen, in the whole edifice, of the first of the three periods, 
into which the history of Arabian architecture is divided. 
This gate is of white marble delicately sculptured, and orna- 
mented with numerous columns of precious marble. The arch 
itself is mosaic, with a blue ground, and the decorations su- 
perbly gilt; and its intrados are gold, red, blue, and green 
mosaics, of singular beauty. Unfortunately, the Arabic in- 
scriptions are at present too much defaced, to be sufficiently 
legible for the purpose of being transcribed and translated : 
yet, from their imperfect remains we are justified in stating, 
that the Cufic characters were distinguished by equal taste 
and beauty. The two lines, which are at the top and on 
either side of the arch, are in mosaic on a blue ground with 
gold letters; and the single line, immediately over the arch, 
is also in mosaic, on a gold ground with blue letters. The 
contrast is exceedingly striking in its present comparatively 
decaying state, and the whole is truly superb : but, when 
illuminated, (especially on the last ten nights of the month 
Ramazan) by the massive silver chandelier, which hung down 
in its centre, the gorgeous beauty of the Zancarron must have 
surpassed every thing that we can possibly conceive of splen- 
dour or magnificence. 

The interior of this Sanctuary is an octagon, only fifteen 
feet in diameter, into which the light is with difhculty ad- 
mitted ; its walls are covered with ornaments nearly similar 
to those above described: and the cupola is composed of a 
single block of marble, said to be eighteen feet in width; 
which, as Mr. Swinburne has justly remarked, is not only 
curious for its size and quality, but also for the ingenuity 
of the architect, by whom it was placed in such a perfect 
equilibrium, as to remain unshaken during the lapse of so 
many ages. 

The Zancarron is at present a chapel, dedicated to Saint 
Peter, and formerly belonged to the Dukes of Alba : it contains 
the tombs of several grandees of that family, and is now the 
property of the Conde de Oropesa. 



PLATE VII. 

EXTERIOR ANGLE OF THE MOSQUE. 

Each of the four fronts of this noble edifice presents walls of 
uncommon solidity, crowned with engrailed battlements, and 
supported by buttresses, which, at a distance, have the ap- 
pearance of so many towers. Our plate gives a \\QW of the 
exterior south-west angle of the mosque : the walls are covered 
with plaster of a greyish colour, which being decayed in 
some parts, the stone-work becomes apparent ; the massive 
outside pier or buttress, is nine feet and a half in height from 
the ground to the bottom of the engrailed battlement. 

Such IS the general character of the building ; but it is 
worthy of remark, that each front differs from the other as to 
its height and ornaments, in consequence of the Arabian 
architect being obliged to accommodate the structure to the 



A DESCRIPTION OF ANTIQUITIES AT CORDOVA. 



5 



versatile taste of the Arabs, wlio were passionately fond of 
variety, and also to the inequalities of the soil ; which are 
so great, that in order to reach the echfice, it becomes ne- 
cessary to ascend thirty steps on the south side, and on the 
north side to descend fourteen steps. Between most of the 
projecting piers or buttresses, doors are placed, which are 
ornamented with fret-work in stucco, of equally delicate and 
durable workmanship ; that has continued unimpaired, not- 
withstanding it has been exposed to the injuries of the weather 
for so many centuries. In some of these ornaments, the Arabs 
have combined with the stucco a kind of mosaic of baked 
earth, the introduction of which has contributed greatly to 
consolidate the whole of the fret-work. 

These ornaments are further painted with various brilliant 
colours ; which must have produced a very striking effect 
before any alterations were made in the edifice. 



PLATE vm. 

A CUFIC INSCRIPTION IN THE PLACE APPROPRIATED TO THE PER- 
FORMANCE OF ABLUTIONS, IN THE MOSQUE AT CORDOVA. 

T^ranslation of the first seven Lines of the Inscription^ 

" In the name of God, the Merciful, the Forgiving. O ye 
" who believe, when ye proceed to prayer, wash your faces, 
" and your hands up to the elbow, and touch your heads and 
" your feet unto the ancles : and if ye be unclean from sexual 
" intercourse, wash yourselves all over. But, if ye be sick or 
" on a journey, or any one of you should come from the 
" easing of nature, or if ye have touched women, and find no 
" water, perform the ceremony with good earth, and touch 
" your faces and your hands therewith. God willeth not to 
" impose any difficulty upon you: but he desireth to make 
" you pure, and to accomplish his grace upon you, to the 
" end that ye may be thankful." 

Koran, Surat (or chapter) V. Ayat (or verse) 7. 

This part of the inscription, it will readily be perceived, refers 
to the performance of ablutions before prayer ; which constitute 
one of the four fundamental points of religious practice required 
by Mohammed. A particular account of them may be seen in the 
" Preliminary Discourse," prefixed to Mr. Sale's translation of 
the Koran, pp. 104-106, (4to edition). The characters in this 
plate present a fine specimen of the Cufic letters without the dia- 
critic points, which were chiefly used for inscriptions on stone. 
The translations of the inscription in this and the following plate, 
were executed by Professor Shakespear, of the Hon. East India 
Company's College, at Croydon. 

Translation of the eightli, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and 

thirteenth Lines. 

" In the name of God, the Merciful, the Forgiving. Attend 
" carefully to the times of prayer, and to the medial prayer; 
" and stand up to God, supplicating. The Imam Almustansir 
" Billah Abdullah Alhakam, Commander of the Faithful, 



" whom God prosper after (imparting") the divine aid, com- 
" manded, in respect to what he thought deficient in this 
' ' sanctuary, to clothe it with marble ; which he caused to 
" be introduced with the introduction of (pious works and) 
" excellent water. This he executed by the hands of his 
" minister and Hajib, Jaafar, son of Abdurrahman, with 
" whom may God be pleased, and under the inspection of 

" Muhammad son of and Ahmad son of Nasr, and 

" Khalacl son of Hashim, commander of the guards, and 
" Mutref son of Abdurrahman, the secretary his domestic, in 
" the month Dhu-l-Hijja of the year three hundred and fifty- 
" four." (A.D. 965). "He, that directeth his face to God 
" and doeth good, hath taken hold of the firm handle. To 
" God is the event (or success) of things." 

Of the additional works executed in the mosque by order of 
Alhakam and referred to in this and the following plate, some 
account is given in the " History of the Mahometan Empire in 
Spain," pp. 181-183. The three first lines of this part of the in- 
scription are taken from the Koran, Surat xi. Ayat 115.' The 
concluding sentence is also taken from the same book, Surat xxxi. 
Ayat 2,2,. 

Translation of the last four Lines. 

" In the name of God, the Merciful, the Forgiving. O ye 

" who believe, fear God in the truth of his fear, and ye shall 

" not die unless (or till) ye are Moslems (that is, in safety). 

" And take hold of the bond of God (his religion) altogether; 

" and separate not yourselves (from it). And remember the 

" grace of God upon you: when ye were foes, then he caused 

" friendship between your hearts, and ye became brethren 

' ' through his favour ; and ye were on the brink of the pit 

" of fire, when he delivered you from it.. In this manner God 

" manifesteth unto you his signs (or miracles or verses of the 

" Koran), that ye may be guided to righteousness." 

Koran, Surat iii. Ayat 102-103. 



PLATE VIIL No. 2. 

A CUFIC INSCRIPTION ON THE ADDITIONS MADE TO THE MOSQUE BY 
ORDER OF THE KHALIF ALHAKAM. 

The three upper lines of this inscription are on the right 
hand of the arch ; and the three lower lines are on the left 
hand of the arch. 

T ranslation of both parts of the Inscription. 

" In the name of God, the Merciful, the Forgiving. Praise 
" be to God, who hath directed us by the (divine) guidance: 
" for we could not have been guided in the right way unless 
" he had guided us. Certainly the messengers of our Lord 
" came with the truth. 

" The Imam Almustansir Billah Abdullah Alhakam, 

* The words included in the parenthesis in this part of the inscription, are doubtful, 
•t" The proper name of this person is wanting, the translator not being able to ascertain it 
from the Cufic characters. 



6 



A DESCRIPTION OF ANTIQUITIES AT CORDOVA. 



" Commander of the Faithful, whom God prosper, com- 
" manded his minister and chamberlain, Jaafar, the son of 
" Abdurrahman, with whom may God be pleased, to found 
" these two wings'' among what (other structures) he raised 
" in piety towards God, and for (the divine) favour. And 
" this was completed in the month Dhu-l-Hijja, in the year 
" three hundred and fifty-four" (A. D. 965). 

The former part of this inscription is taken from the Koran, 
Surat vii. Ayat 44 ; in which Mohammed is announcing the judg- 
ments, which God will inflict on the infidels, and the rewards 
and blessings of Paradise, which he will bestow on the faithful. 
See Sale's Koran, pp. 120, 121. 



PLATE IX. 

THE BRIDGE OF CORDOVA. 

Tradition relates, that there formerly was a bridge over the 
Guadalquivir, erected on the site of the present structure, 

* Literally, shoulders. It is by no means clear, what sort of building is actually intended. 



about two hundred years before the arrival of the Moors in 
Spain: but, this edifice being greatly decayed, the Arabs 
built the bridge delineated in our engraving, during the vice- 
royship of Assamh, A. PI. 101 — A. D. 720 or 721. This 
noble structure is four hundred paces, or one thousand feet, 
in length, at two feet six inches each pace ; its breadth is 
twenty-two feet eight inches within the parapet. The passage 
over the bridge is a straight line, from one end to the other ; 
the arches are sixteen in number ; and the buttresses of the 
piers are much stronger and better adapted for similar pur- 
poses, than the modern tri-lateral cut-waters. Nearly eleven 
centuries have these buttresses withstood the rapid floods of 
the Guadalquivir, without sustaining any material injury. 

In the river are erected several mills, the horizontal wheels 
of which are worked by the stream. One of them, of Arabian 
construction, was visited by the author, who observed three 
pair of mill-stones grinding corn. The terraced roof of the 
building is supported by crescent arches ; and the whole is 
strongly cemented, and well calculated to resist the pressure 
of the current. 



END OF THE DESCRIPTION OF THE ANTIQUITIES AT CORDOVA. 



PART II. 

A DESCRIPTION OF THE ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



The Engraving, which is introductory to the description of the Alhamra, exhibits a combination of Arabian ornaments, selected 
from various parts of that celebrated palace. 

In the centre of this plate, round the circle, is the motto, which so frequently occurs in the edifice, — " Wa la ghalib illa-llah^'" 
that is, " T^here is no Conqueror but God."" 

In the left hand corner, at the bottom of the plate, is the obverse of a fine gold coin, exactly of the size represented, which was 
struck by order of Muhammad Abu Abdillah Ebn Yusuf, surnamed Alghalib Billah, a celebrated king of Granada : the coin in 
question is preserved in the Museum of the King of Spain. Within the square is an Arabic inscription, of which the following is 
a translation: " In the name of God, the Merciful, the Forgiving, "the Blessing of God on Muhammad afid his family. — There is 
no Conqueror but God.'' On the segments of the circle round this square, we read : " Tour God is one God. There is no God but 
He, — the Merciful, the Forgivijig.'' 

In the right hand corner, is the reverse of the same coin, containing the following sentences : within the square : " There is no 
God but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God. Almahady, Prince of the people of Granada On the segments of the circle 
round the square : " The Commander of the Faithful, Alghalib Billah Muhammad, Son of Tusuf Son of JVasr, whom God prosper.'' 

The central line, at the bottom of the engraving, has the following inscription :— " Glory to our Lord Abu Abdillah. Glory 
to our Lord the Sultan." 



PLATE X. 

THE ROYAL PALACE AND FORTRESS OF ALHAMRA, AT GRANADA. 

On looking from the royal villa or pleasure-house of Al Ge- 
neralife, which is delineated in the latter part of this work,* 
the spectator beholds the side of the palace of Alhamra, that 
commands the quarter of the city, called the Albayzin. The 
massive towers are connected by solid walls, constructed upon 
the system of fortifications which generally prevailed in the 
middle ages. These walls and towers follow all the turnings 
and windings of the mountain ; and, previously to the in- 
vention of gimpowder and artillery, this fortress must have 
been almost impregnable. The situation of this edifice is the 
most delightful and commanding, that can well be conceived. 
Wherever the spectator may turn his eyes, it is impossible 
for him not to be struck with admiration at the picturesque 
beauty and fertility of the surrounding country. On the 
north and west, as far as the eye can reach, a lovely plain 
presents itself, which is covered with an immense number of 
trees laden with fruits or blossoms, while on the south it is 
bounded by mountains ; whose lofty summits are crowned 
with perpetual snows, whence issue the springs and streams 
that diffuse both health and coolness through the city of 
Granada. 

The Alhamra, usually, but erroneously, denominated the 

* See it described infra Plates LXXXIX. to XCV. 



Alhambra, is a vast pile of building, about two thousand 
three hundred English feet in length ; and its breadth, which 
is the same throughout, is about six hundred feet. It was 
erected by Muhammad Abu Abdillah, surnamed Alghalib 
Billah ; who superintended the edifice himself, and, when it 
was completed, made it the royal residence. 

For a minute accoimt of this palace, with architectural ob- 
servations on the disposition of its several parts, the reader is 
referred to the " History of the Mahometan Empire in Spain," 
Part I. Chapter V. Sect. II. pp. 193-198. 



PLATE XL 

A GENERAL PLAN OF THE FORTRESS OF THE ALHAMRA. 

Explanation of the Figures of Reference. 

1. The Puerta del Justicia, or Gate of Judgment, now the principal entrance to the 

Fortress. 

2. The gate, called Puerta del VinOy or the Wine Gate. 

3. Towers. 

4. Armoury. 

5. Watch Tower (Torre de la Velha^ 

6. A Battery. 

7. Towers. 

8. Place of the Great Subterraneous Cisterns (Plaza de los Algibes). 

9. Remains of the Arabian Palace. 
10. Palace of the Emperor Charles V. 

This grand pile of building, commenced for the Emperor Charles V. was never 
finished in consequence of his frequent absences from Spain, occasioned by the 



8 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE 



ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



almost perpetual wars in which he was engaged. The spot chosen for its site 
commands a most heautiful view of the city of Granada, as well as its surrounding 
Vega or Plain. As a specimen of Spanish architecture, it reflects the highest 
credit on the artist, Alonzo or Alphonso Berrugueti, who began to execute it in 
the year 1526. It is every way adapted to the chmate ; and its interior, which is 
of a circular form, unites convenience and splendour. In any other situation but 
this, the palace of Charles V. would justly excite admiration : but here it is mis- 
placed, and produces only disgust, especially when it is recollected that its ex- 
pense was defrayed by part of the money obtained under a false pretence from 
the unhappy Moors. That oppressed people had presented the Emperor with 
80,000 ducats (according to Pedraza, but M. Peyron says 1,600,000 ducats), as 
a boon for not depriving them of the Arabic language. The artful monarch re- 
ceived their money, and deluded them with promises that were never fulfilled, 
and which did not even put a stop to the inftuuous system of persecuting and 
ransoming them, under the insidious pretence of effecting their conversion. 

11. Parish Church. 

12. Castles, Towers, &c. 

13. Towers, flanking the walls of the Fortress. 

14. Aqueduct connected with the Generalife. 

15. Reservoir Tower. 

16. Remains of an ancient dwelling-. 

17. Puerta de los siete suelos, or Gate of the Tower of Seven Stages. 

This tower is said to descend seven stories under ground : no person, however, 
has been able to penetrate lower than the fourth story. Divers marvellous tales 
are related concerning this tower, in which the Moorish sovereigns are said, for 
a long time, to have deposited their treasures. Here, according to the vulgar 
fables, is heard the din of arms, and of soldiers ready to massacre all who have 
the temerity to present themselves. These soldiers are stationed here to ouard 
immense treasures ; and in the discharge of this duty they are assisted by three 
terrific monsters, the most formidable of which is a horse without a head ! ! ! 

18. Prison Tower. 

19. Remains of a Building, called the Mufti's Palace. 

20. The Royal Villa of Al Generalife, or Generaliffe. 

21. Remains of a Castle called la Silla del Moro. 

22. An Arabian Cistern called BaFio de las Damas, or the Ladies' Bath. 

23. Coach Entrance to the Generalife. 

24. Ruins of a Fortress. 

25. Castles and Towers — Torres Vermejas. 

26. Remains of a Fortress, 

27. The River Darro or Dauro. 

28. Part of the City of Granada. 

The reader is requested to observe, that all the strongly 
shaded parts, in this plate, represent ancient works. 



PLATE XII. 

A GROUND PLAN OF THE ROYAL PALACE OF ALHAMRA. 

The preceding plate exhibits a general plan of the Alhamra, 
including all the various modern additions : in the present 
engraving we offer a ground plan of this celebrated edifice, 
by inspecting which, the form of its different apartments may 
be the more readily discerned, and the sites of those in par- 
ticular may be ascertained, of which we have given views. 

Explanation of the Letters of Reference. 

A. A. A. A. The Palace of the Moorish Sovereigns, according to its original plan. 

B. B. B. B. B. B. A Fragment ; which, being connected with the buildings that still 

continue entire, has enabled the author to ascertain the original plan of the 
Alhamra. 

C. C. C. C. C. Modern erections added by the Catholic kings of Spain. 

D. D. D. D. D. D. D. Horizontal Projection of the Palace of Charles V. which is 

described in Plate XL fip-. 10. 

Explanation of the Figures in Plate XII. 

1. The Outside of the Palace. 

2. The Hall of Judgment,— probably so called from the Moorish Kings having sat 

there to hear and determine the causes broupht before them 

3. Court of the Great Bath. 

4. 4. A Parterre, on each side the great Paieo del Agua, A. 



5. 5. Pavement on each side of the Parterre. 

6. Entrance to the Baths. 

7. Roof of Hot Baths. 

8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. Roof of Baths and Apartments belonging thereto. 

9. Point whence our View of the Court of the Lions was taken. 

10. The Fountain of Lions. 

11. The Hall of the Abencerrages. 

12. Sala de das Hermanas, or Hall of the Two Sisters. 

13. The Tower of Comares or Comaresch, 

which is one hundred and forty-two feet in height. It is said to have derived this 
appellation either from the Moorish architect by whom it was erected, or from 
the workmen employed coming from a place called Comares, or, according to 
Pedraza, from its superbly executed ornaments, by the Moors and Persians 
termed Comaragia* It is the loftiest and most magnificent tower in the Al- 
hamra : in form, it is a parallelogram : the roof is circular, and the cupola in its 
centre is most beautifully stuccoed, in imitation of mother of pearl. The Spaniards 
indeed assert, and believe it to be mother of pearl. The various apartments in this 
tower are profusely decorated with ornaments and inscriptions, the most beautiful 
of which are given in Plates LXVI. to LXXI. and LXXXV. infra. The 
poems, whence these inscriptions are taken, are given at length in " The History 
of the Mahometan Empire in Spain," Appendix, Nos. 3 — 14. 

14. The point, whence our Perspective View of the Hall of Audience, or of the Am- 

bassadors, was taken : for which see Plate XL. infra. 



PLATE XIII. 

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRANCE TO THE ALHAMRA. 

This plate exhibits to considerable advantage the massive 
architecture of the Alhamra : the principal approach to it is 
through the narrow Calk de los Gomeles, or Stittt of Gomeles, 
so called from the ancient and powerful Moorish family of 
that name. From this street, which has retained its original 
form, after passing through a gate into the outward inclosure 
of the Alhamra, the road ascends by a winding path through 
a wood of lofty elms, intermixed with other handsome trees. 
Wild neglected walks intersect the ascent in various direc- 
tions; and streams of water, gushing on every side from the 
moss-covered rocks, frequently spread over the whole road. 
Near the summit of the hill, is a large and formerly hand- 
some fountain erected by the Emperor Charles V. It is now 
in a state of very considerable decay, and, like the rest of this 
magnificent edifice, exMbits a monument of departed splen- 
dour. All is verdant, and most beautifully picturesque on 
this delicious spot. 



PLATE XIV. 

THE GATE OF JUDGMENT. 

This gate, which is now called the Guard-Gate in consequence 
of some invalids mounting guard at it, was erected by the 
Sultan Abu-l-Hajjij Yasuf, an illustrious King of Granada, 
A. H. 749, or A. D. 1348 ; as appears by an Arabic inscrip- 
tion over It above which an image of the Virgin has been 
placed The inscription referred to, is given at lenglh, with 
an English translation, in the " History of the Mahometan 
Empire m Spain," Appendix, No. l. The horse-shoe arch, 

* Pedraza, Antiguedad de Granada, p. 16. 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE 



ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



9 



which is so ^^ecidiarly characteristic of Arabian architec- 
ture, is particularly observable in this part of the structure. 
On each side of the above inscription is a block of marble, 
containing (in Arabic) the following passages from the 
Koran : — ' ' Praise be to God ! Titer e is no God hut God, 
and Mahomet is his Prophet. There is no strength hutjrom 
God.'' 

This gate is termed the Puerta de laj'usticia, that is, Gate 
of Law or of Judgment, because it was erected to serve as a 
tribunal, in conformity with the practice of the ancient Arabs, 
who as well as the Jews, held their courts of justice at the gates 
of the cities. It is in consequence of this ancient Oriental 
custom, that the Court of the Grand Signior is distinguished 
by the appellation of the Sublime Porte. The marble, with 
which this gate is constructed, was originally white, but it 
has now become of a grey or yellowish cast. 



PLATE XV. 

ELEVATION OF THE ANCIENT GATE OF JUDGMENT. 

In this plate we have a nearer view of this noble gate of en- 
trance, and are better enabled to examine its oi naments. The 
mosaic tiling at the top is about three feet four inches high, 
and of a pattern that is frequently to be seen in the Alhami a. 
The inscription beneath it is in flourished Cufic characters, 
and consists of the motto, twice repeated, which occurs in 
almost every part of the edifice, viz. Wa la ghalib illah-llah, 
that is, " And there is no Conqueror but God.'' 

Beneath this inscription, upon the key-stone of the arch 
(which is the second or inner arch of the gate), is sculptured 
a key, a favourite symbol with the Moslems. The Koran 
frequently mentions the Key of God, which opens to believers 
the gates of the world and of religion. M. Peyron has re- 
marked, that the key, among the Mussulmen, is nearly the 
same as the cross among Christians, — a principal sign or 
badge of their faith. Among the Arabians it had functions 
and power, similar to those attributed to it by the members 
of the Roman Catholic Church : namely, that of binding and 
loosening, of opening and shutting, the gates of heaven. 

As the key in the scriptures is considered as an emblem of 
power (see Isa. xxii. 22, with Rev. i. 18, and iii. 7), Pedraza 
thinks it was therefore adopted as an armorial ensign ; and 
that, in conjunction with the hand, which is seen conspi- 
cuously in Plate XVI. it was sculptured on the gate by 
order of Abu-l-Hajjaj, to denote concord, or union and power. 
The door of this gate is of palm-tree wood, with iron bolts ; 
and the capitals of the columns are executed in the same 
style as those which appear in the Lions' Court. An 
enlarged view of one of these entablatures is given infra, 
in Plate XXXVII. 



PLATE XVL 

PORCH OF THE GATE OF JUDGMENT. 

In addition to the objects described in the preceding en- 
gra\'ing, the present plate affords a clear view of the lofty 
porch of the Gate of Judgment. The crescent form of the 
arches is seen to considerable advantage : and on the key- 
stone of the first or high arch, is sculptured an open hand ^ 
which (as well as the key above noticed) was a favourite 
symbol with the Mahometans. The omnipotent ha7id of God 
is very often mentioned in the Koran, as conducting the true 
believers into the right way. 

The mystical import of this open hand has excited much 
curious inquiry, the discussion of which would be foreign to 
the design of this work. We may, however, remark, that it 
had three mysterious significations among the Moors. 

I. It designated divine Providence. 

II. It was a prototype, or rather epitome of the law, which 
has five fundamental precepts. As the hand has five parts, 
viz. four fingers and a thumb. These precepts are : L Faith 
in God and in Mahomet as his Prophet. 2. Prayer (under 
which are comprehended all those legal washings or purifica- 
tions which are accounted necessary preparations to that 
duty). 5. The giving of Abns. 4. /rtj^mg, particularly during 
the month of Ramadan, and 5. A pilgrimage to the Caaba 
at Mecca''' And each of these precepts is divided into as 
many modifications as the fingers and thumb. 

III. The Arabians, considering the hand as the symbol of 
their religion, believed it to be a powerful defence against the 
enemies of the Koran ; and that it could even produce en- 
chantments and miracles, by giving to it certain figures, and 
changing them according to the courses of the stars, constel- 
lations and planets. According to this notion (says M. Pey- 
ron), when represented open like this hand over the Gate of 
Judgment, it had the power of weakening the strength of the 
enemy. 

Further, it appears from the account given by Pedraza, the 
learned antiquary of Granada, that the hand was a symbol of 
union among those Arabs who remained in Spain, after the 
conquest of that city by Ferdinand and Isabella. The Moors 
used to wear, on their breast, a small badge containing the 
figure of a hand, together with some Arabic characters. At 
this symbol of their faith and mutual brotherly love in 
their bondage, the sanguinary Inquisition took alarm : the 
government became apprehensive for the stability of the 
Church and State; and, after many consultations with the 
hierarchy, the use of this symbol was formally abolished by 
law, among many other national customs of the oppressed 
Moors. 

* For an account of these fundamental principles of Islamism, see Sale's Koran, Prel. Disc, 
pp. 71—122, 4to. edition. 



10 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE ALH4MRA AT GRANADA. 



PLATE XVII. 

A SECTION OF THE GATE OF JUDGMENT. 

This engraving will convey some idea of the solid masonry, 
with which the gate is constructed. After the copious elu- 
cidations already given, little remains to be offered respecting 
it. We may however remark, that 

A. is the niche in which the statue of the Virgin Mary is placed, which appears in 

Plate XIV. In 

B. Are placed the benches for the invalids to sit on, who mount guard at this gate. 

C. A door-way, opening into other parts of the palace, which is now covered with 

plates of iron. 



PLATE XVm. 

ELEVATION OF THE PUERTA DEL VIxNO. 

The position of this gate may be seen in Plate XI. No. 2. 
Whence its name, Piierta del Vino, or the Wine-Gate, is de- 
rived, we have not been able to ascertain. The door is of 
palm-tree wood, with iron bolts ; and over the gateway is a 
dwelHng, leading from the guard-house entrance to the palace 
of the Emperor Charles V. 



PLATE XIX. 

PLAN AND SECTION OF THE GREAT CISTERN. 

Contiguous to the Palace of the Emperor Charles V. is the 
Plaza de los Algibes^ or square of the cisterns, which is thus 
denominated from the ancient cisterns constructed beneath 
it, and which are constantly supplied with running water, 
brought from a neighbouring hill, about one league distant. 
So abundant was the quantity thus conveyed, as fully to 
answer the demands of the numerous inhabitants who an- 
ciently occupied the Alhamra. The largest of these subterra- 
neous cisterns is correctly delineated in our Engraving ; and, 
when the water is discharged from it, it is perhaps one of 
the most curious objects of attention in the whole palace. It 
has been formed at a considerable depth below the surface 
of the ground; is one hundred and two feet in length by 
fifty-six feet in width; and the whole is inclosed by a 
wall six feet thick, and arched over. This arch, marked A. 
in the plate, is forty-seven feet seven inches high in the 
centre, and seventeen feet five inches below the surface of 
the ground. 

B. B. Are two circular openings, twenty-five feet six inches asunder, from centre to 

centre of each, and strongly walled. They are three feet six inches in diameter, 
and are carried up three feet six inches above the surface of the ground, in 
order to admit both air and light. 

C. is a vault eleven feet square ; after passing which, the steps 

D. lead from the surface of the ground down to the bottom of the cistern. Four feet 

above the second landing place. 

E. is the level of the vault C. through which the water passes, and enters the cistern. 

F. F. F. are three openings between the two landing places descending to the 

bottom. They are six feet in height by three feet in width. The descent of 
the steps from the surface of the ground to the bottom of the cistern is 
sixty feet. 



G. is a sewer, to carry off the water : for which purpose a man was let down the well, 

H. by a rope. The apparatus for discharging the water was extremely simple, con- 

sisting of a brass cock, which was fixed at the extremity of 

I. a narrow subterraneous corridor. 

This immense reservoir is supposed to have been con- 
structed with the design of keeping the water in a state of 
perpetual coolness, — a luxury, which in hot climates is re- 
garded of the utmost consequence. 



PLATE XX. 

THE HALL OF THE BATHS. 

The further we advance towards the interior of the palace, the 
more costly and beautiful is the execution of the workman- 
ship, agreeably to the custom of the Moors ; who to this day 
bestow little of external ornament on their edifices ; while all 
that art can contribute to convenience or splendour, is pro- 
perly bestowed on the inner apartments. 

The hall, delineated in Plate XX, derives its appellation 
from its leading to the baths of the Alhamra: its arches rest 
on very slight columns ; which, as well as the floor, are of 
white marble. The mosaic tilings reach up to the cornices, 
and are exceedingly beautiful : the respirators or ventilators 
are of baked earth, with a green glazing : the form of these 
ventilators is represented in the upper part of our engraving; 
and the same shape is preserved in all the apartments be- 
longing to the baths. 



PLATE XXL 

A SECTION OF THE HALL OF THE BATHS. 

The solidity of the Arabian structure is here advantageously 
seen, together with the form of the mosaics. The columns 
are in a style of architecture, totally differing from that of 
every order to which the European eye is accustomed : not- 
withstanding their apparent slendeiness, they have proved 
fully adequate to support the superior incumbent weight of 
the massive stone work above them. 



PLATE XXIL 

cieling of the hall of the baths. 

The ciehng of this noble apartment is one of the most superb 
that can well be conceived: its border is beautifully orna- 
mented; and the ventilators, which are here seen in different 
points of view, being glazed of a green colour, admit both 
light and air, and diffuse a most refreshing coolness through 
the hall. 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE 
PLATE XXIII. 

THE king's bath. 



PLATE XXIV. 

THE queen's BATH. 

On account of the frequent ablutions required by the Koran, 
the baths constitute the most important part of the royal 
palace ; accordingly no labour or expense has been spared, 
in order to render them magnificent. Passing by what is called 
the common bath, (which in any other place beside this 
palace of enchantment, would justly command admiration), 
we proceed to the baths appropriated to the sovereign and his 
consort. These apartments are both finished in an exquisite 
style, but the Queen's bath is the most richly ornamented 
with gilding and porcelain. The basons, containing the water, 
are of white marble ; the walls are covered, to the height of 
the cornices, with beautiful black and white mosaics. The 
vaulted stone roof is perforated with the ventilators ; through 
which a soft and skilfully managed light is admitted into this 
voluptuous retreat. The Arabic inscription in the King's 
bath consists of these following sentences, so often repeated 
in the Alhamra : — Thei^e is no conqueror but God,'' and 
" Glory to our Lord, the Sultan Abu AbdillahP' 



PLATE XXV. 

CONCERT ROOM OF THE BATHS. 

Contiguous to the baths was a lofty saloon, in which the 
royal family listened to the performances of the musicians. 
These were stationed in the elevated tribune in the centre of 
our engraving; while the court sat below on costly carpets. 
The columns that support this noble saloon, are of white 
marble : the mosaics, which are here in the greatest abun- 
dance, are uncommonly beautiful, particularly those between 
the columns, which are black, green, yellow, and white, set 
in a green border. The roof is covered with tiles, and the 
woodwork beneath is richly ornamented, especially the three 
lattices or windows, and the different recesses, whose comnlex 



ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 11 



PLATE XXVIL 

A GROUND PLAN OF THE BATHS, IN THE ALHAMRA. 

Explanation of the Letters of Reference in this Plate. 

A. A. A. Entrances to the quarter of the Palace containing the Baths. 

B. B. B. B. B. B. Passages communicating with the different apartments and Baths. 

C. C. Apartments, looking into 

D. D. A court with a fountain in its centre. 

E. E. Baths and dressing rooms. 

F. F. F. Warm Baths. 

G. G. G. The place where the water was heated : the copper vessels anciently em- 

ployed for this purpose were sold, upwards of thirty years since, by the then 
Governor of the Alhamra, for the sum of 14,000 reals, about ,£350. sterling. 
From these coppers, the warm water was conducted between the walls to the 
different baths, by means of pipes communicating with them, and which are 
distinctly shewn by the white line. 

L I. I. I. L L L Other baths and apartments : the lines a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. 
designate steps by which the bathers descended into the water. 

K. The great Hall of the Baths, delineated in plates XX, XXI, and XXII. 



PLATE XX Vm. 

ELEVATION OF A SMALL PORTICO NEAR THE CHAPEL. 

After leaving the gate of judgment, and before we reach the 
Plaza de los Algibes, or square of the cisterns, we pass through 
a gate, which is now converted into a chapel. Adjacent to 
this chapel is the charming little portico, of which our En- 
graving presents an elevation : it is one of the best finished 
parts of the palace ; the delicate execution of its variegated 
mosaics, the elegant form of the Cufic characters, which con- 
tain the common inscription of the building, (" There is no 
Conqueror but God,)'' the elegant proportion of the pillars, all 
together present a scene of unrivalled beauty. The window is 
seen in perspective through the arch ; and the prospect from 
this window is truly grand and picturesque, commanding a 
view, not only of the villa of Al Generalife, but also over the 
exuberant Vega or plain of Granada, as far as the distant 
mountains by which it is circumscribed. 



PLATE XXIX. 



ornaments exceed every thing of the kind that has been exe- 
cuted in modern times. The Cufic inscriptions, which are so 
numerous in this part of the palace, are only repetitions of 
those described in the preceding plate. 



PLATE XXVL 

A SECTION OF THE BATHS IN THE ALHAMRA. 

In this plate is indicated the relative situation of the different 
apartments belonging to the baths. 

A. A. Is the noble vaulted hall communicating with the baths and the concert room : 

it is delineated and described in Plates XX, XXI, and XXII, supra. 

B. The King's Bath, see Plate XXIII. 

C. The Queen's Bath, see Plate XXIV. 

D. The concert Room, or Saloon of Music, see Plate XXV. 



NORTH SIDE OF THE PATEO DEL AGUA, OR GREAT FOUNTAIN. 



PLATE XXX. 

ELEVATION OF THE PORTICO ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE 

PATEO DEL AGUA. 



PLATE XXXL 

A VIEW OF THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE PATEO DEL AGUA. 

Nearly in the centre of the palace, stands the noble Court and 
Fountain delineated in these three engravings . For their relative 
situation, see Plate XII. fig. 4. 4. p. 8. The cool temperature 



12 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



of the air, arising from the fountain and the noble sheet of 
water connected with it, must have been truly delightful. 
The pavement, with which it is surrounded, is of white 
marble ; and on either side was a parterre of flowers, now 
neglected. Tlie usual inscription is presented in Giific 
characters. Tlie windows of the end, and upper part, of the 
south side, have been shut up in consequence of the palace 
of Charles V. having been erected. The pent roof in the 
north front of the Pateo del Agua, appears to be a modern 
addition : for its projecting rafters are plain, while those on 
the other three sides are ornamented. It is therefore highly 
probable, that such addition was made by some of the later 
kings of Spain, in order to make the four sides look uniform. 
Some of the stucco work is also modern, and of very inferior 
execution to that of the Arabs, which for the most part re- 
mains unimpaired, while the other is rapidly mouldering 
away. 



PLATE XXXII. 

ELEVATIOxN OF AN ALCOVE IN THE PATEO DEL AGUA. 

The tasteful ornaments and elegant form of the Cufic cha- 
racters, which could not be distinctly exhibited in the pre- 
ceding plates, are here displayed to the greatest advantage. 
The mosaics, which are in excellent preservation, must have 
been extremely beautiful in the time of the Moors. 

The walls of the alcoves in the Court of the Pateo del Agua 
present various effusions of the muse, which have been in- 
scribed by diflFerent travellers, and which of course vary in 
style and execution. The following is the best of these 
votive offerings, and was transcribed verbatim by the author 
of the present work, on the 20th of July, 1802, from the wall 
of one of the alcoves : 

" When these fam'd walls did Pagan rites admit, 

" Here reign'd unrivall'd breeding, science, wit. 

" Christ's standard came, the Prophet's flag assail'd, 

" And fix't true worship where the false prevail'd : 

" And, such the zeal its pious followers bore, 

" Wit, science, breeding, perished with the Moor. 

" H. F. Gr lie, Feb. 7, 1790." 

Happily for the honourable author of this severe but just 
censure on the furious bigotry of the Spaniards, it was written 
in English. Had the reverend f^ithers of the Holy Inquisi- 
tion been apprised of its tendency, it is more than probable 
that the preceding honest effusion of his indignation would 
have procured him the favour of a residence (for some time 
at least) within the walls of that merciful tribunal. 



PLATE xxxin. 

A PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COURT AND FOUNTAIN OF LIONS. 

After passing through the Court of the Baths, which appears 
to be the grand exterior vestibule of the palace, we enter 
another court, by the Spaniards termed Qiiarto de los Leones, 



or the Lions' Court, than which, nothing more elegant can 
be conceived : it is, indeed, the most perfect model of Moorish 
architecture. 

The Lions' Court is an oblong square, one hundred feet in 
length, and fifty in breadth ; and is surrounded with a cor- 
ridor of one hundred and twenty-eight columns that support 
the arches, on which rest the upper apartments of this en- 
chanting palace. A beautiful portico, not unlike the portals 
of some Gotliic churches, projects into this court at each ex- 
tremity ; the stuccoed ceiling of which is executed with equal 
perfection and elegance. The colonnade is paved with white 
marble ; and the slender pillars themselves, are of the same 
material. They are disposed very irregularly, being some- 
times single, and at other times in pairs, or clusters of three; 
but the magnificent coup-d'oeil of the whole is peculiarly 
pleasing to the eye of the astonished visitor. The columns 
are about nine feet high, including the base and capital, and 
eight inches and a half in diameter : the larger crescent arches 
above them, are four feet two inches in width ; and the smaller 
arches are three feet wide. To the height of five feet from 
the ground, the walls are ornamented with a beautiful yellow 
and blue mosaic tiling, with a border containing the often re- 
peated sentence, " There is no Conqueror but God," in blue 
and gold. The capitals of the pillars vary in their designs, 
each of which is very frequently repeated in the circumference 
of the Court ; but not the least attention has been paid to 
placing them regularly or opposite to each other. 

The arches are further ornamented with a great variety of 
tastefully designed and exquisitely finished arabesques, in 
which no trace of animal or vegetable life is to be found, and 
which are surmounted with the usual inscriptions : and above 
these arches, an elegantly finished cornice runs round the 
whole court. From some remaining fragments of tiles, which 
are varnished and painted of various colours, aiid with which 
the building was originally covered, it should seem, that the 
roof was anciendy more lofty than it now is. In the centre of 
the court stands the celebrated fountain, whence it derives its 
name, and which is more clearly dehneated in the following 
engravings. The only thing that disfigures the harmony of 
this noble Court, is the projecting roof of red tiles, which, 
according to Mr. Swinburne, was put on by order of M. Wall, 
formerly prime minister of Spain, under whose administration 
die Alhamra received a complete repair. In a garden front- 
mg the Court above described, four stones were found some 
years since, containing the epitaphs of four sovereigns of 
Granada. That of Abu-l-Hajjaj Yusuf is given at length, 
accompanied by an Enghsh translation, in the " History of 
the Mahometan Empire in Spain," Appendix, No. 15. 



PLATE XXXIV. 

elevation of the fountain of lions. 

the centre of the superb Court, above described, stands 
Fountain of Lions : the animals, twelve in number, 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



13 



are, and support on their backs an alabaster bason richly carved 
and ornamented, out of which rises a smaller bason. While 
the pipes were kept in good order, a great volume of water 
was thrown up from the latter; which fell down into the 
larger bason, and, passing through the lions, issued out of 
their mouths into the large reservoir, which was of black 
marble, thus forming a perpetual and refreshing cascade. 
From this reservoir, the limpid stream was diffused by means 
of marble channels through various apartments, and supplied 
the jets d'eau which were constantly playing there. This 
noble fountain is supposed to have been executed in imitation 
of the brazen sea, placed by King Solomon in the Temple at 
Jerusalem. Some of the stucco-work in this court, as well 
as in the Pateo del Agua, is a modern and very inferior imi- 
tation of the Arabic, being coarse and dirty, and is rapidly 
mouldering to decay. The ancient work, on the contrary, 
which is out of the reach of hands, is beautifully white, clean, 
and sharp. Not a single spieler's web, or insect of any kind, 
could the author discover in any part of the court; while the 
stucco work, executed by order of later kings, was covered 
with cobwebs in various parts. The wooden work of the 
Arabs also continues free from worms and insects of every 
kind. 



PLATE XXXV. 

PLAN OF THE BASON OF THE FOUNTAIN OF LIONS. 

The form of this noble reservoir is a dodecagon : the inscrip- 
tion around it is executed in elegant characters, and is engraved 
at length in Plates LXXXIII. and LXXXIV. infra. It is 
also given in modern Arabic characters, accompanied with a 
literal translation by Professor Shakespear, in the " History 
of the Mahometan Empire in Spain Appendix, No. 2. 
Many of the characters are much defaced by the injuries of 
time. 



PLATE XXXVL 

SIDE ELEVATION OF THE LlONs' COURT AND FOUNTAIN. 

This plate exhibits a correct view of the proportions of the 
Lions' Court, together with a section of the Fountain itself. 
The clumsy shape of the lions presents a striking contrast to 
the general harmony that pervades the fountain. The mosaic 
ornaments in this plate are delineated at large, in Plates L. 
and LI. infra. 



PLATE XXXVIL 

ENTABLATURE IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS. 

t 

A CAREFUL examination of this engraving will convey a more 
precise idea than any description can possibly give, of the 



exquisite taste and skill displayed in the ornaments ; which 
are scattered in such rich profusion throughout the superb 
court and fountain already delineated. It will, therefore, 
suffice to observe, that these ornaments are here given in their 
full size ; and that the height, from the bottom of the archi- 
trave (with the inscription) to the bottom of the rafters, is 
exactly two feet nine inches and a half, of English measure- 
ment. 



PLATE xxxvm. 

HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS. 

From the Lions' Court we pass into the Sala de dos Hermanas 
or Hall of the Two Sisters, so called from two large and sin- 
gLilarly beautiful pieces of marble, which form part of the 
pavement, and are to be seen on either side of the fountain. 
They measure fifteen feet in length by seven and a half in 
breadth, and are entirely free from flaw or stain. The eye is 
lost in contemplating the rich assemblage of ornaments, which 
appear in every part of this noble hall. 

From the pavement to the beginning of the arches^ the walls 
are decorated with elegant mosaic : the pannels between the 
arches are filled with a very delicate ornament, which at a 
little distance has the appearance of a plain mass ; and the 
ceiling, which is carefully preserved from the injuries of the 
weather, is composed of stalactites in stucco, and is finished 
in a style of equal elegance. The distribution of the various 
parts of this noble apartment is truly enchanting. The four 
balconies above were occupied by musicians ; below sat the 
women ; and a jet d'eau in the centre diffused a refreshing 
coolness through the hall. The windows in the back ground 
are finished in a similar style, and look into the little myrtle 
garden of Linclaraxa, which, being neglected like the rest of 
the palace, is no longer the lovely spot it was in the time of 
the Arabs. The exquisite mosaics in this Hall are delineated 
at large in Plates LII. LIII. and LIV. infra; and twopannel 
ornaments, with three of its circular Cufic inscriptions, in 
Plate LXXXVI. iiifja. 



PLATE XXXIX. 

HALL OF THE ABENCERRAGES. 

Opposite to the Sala de dos Hermanas, is the Sala de los 
Abencerrages^ or Hall of the Abencerrages, so called from the 
massacre of that illustrious tribe ; which is said to have been 
here perpetrated by Boabdil, the last king of Granada. The 
Abencerrages were one of the noblest tribes in that city, and 
objects of envy to the Zegris and Gomeles, by whom they 
were falsely accused of treason to the King, and one of them 
was charged with illicit intercourse with the Queen. In 
consequence of this charge, the monarch beheaded eighty-six 



14 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



of the Abencerrages (some statements say thirty-five) hi one 
day : the Siikana committed her defence to four Christian 
knights, her champions, who each overcame the accuser with 
whom he fought, and vindicated both her character and that 
of the Abencerrages/'' The eyes of the vulgar can still per- 
ceive, in the alabaster bason which is in the centre of this 
apartment, traces of the blood of those brave men, whom they 
consider as the martyrs of envy : but the unanimous testimo- 
nies of enlightened travellers assert, that these indelible bloody 
spots are nothing more than the effects of time and exposure 
to the air. 

The Hall of the Abencerrages appears to have been a cen- 
tral saloon communicating with the other apartments of the 
palace. Every possible variety of combinations, which can 
be devised by ingenuity or patience, is employed to decorate 
the walls and ceihng ; and is executed in the most exquisite 
manner that can be conceived. The lines regularly cross 
each other in a thousand forms ; and, after manifold windings, 
return to the spot whence they first begin. An inspection of 
Plate LV. in which one of these admirable mosaics is de- 
lineated, will give a more correct idea of the taste and beauty 
which pervade them, than could be obtained from a mere 
description, or from a minute examination of the present en- 
graving. These uncommon designs appear again in different 
parts, and were probably formed by pouring prepared gyp- 
sum -f into moulds, and, after applying it to the walls, by 
painting it with gold, azure, and purple. The ceiling itself 
is equally extraordinary, and worthy of admiration : it pre- 
sents a series of grottos, from which depend stalactites, 
painted of various colours. 



PLATE XL. 

A PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE GOLDEN SALOON, OR HALL OF 

AMBASSADORS. 

This magnificent apartment, by the Arabs termed the Golden 
Saloon, from the profusion of gold ornaments which it con- 
tained, was appropriated to the reception of ambassadors: 
hence they further called it the Hall of Audience, and from 
the same circumstance the Spaniards have given it the appel- 
lation of the Salade los Emhaxadores, or Hall of Ambassadors. 
It is situated in the lofty tower of Comares or Comai esch 
(See Plate XII. fig. 13, and page 8, supra); is thirty-six 
feet square, and sixty feet four inches high from the floor to 
the highest part of the cieling. The walls are, on three sides, 
fifteen feet thick, and on the fourth side nine ; the lower range 
of windows is thirteen feet in height. 

The grand entrance into this noble hall is through an 
arched door-way, admirably finished, and embelhshed with 
flowers and arabesques in stucco: they were blue and gold, 

* The reader may see a translation of a Moorish narrative relating to this event, in M. Peyron's 
Essays on Spain (Bourgoing's Modern State of Spain) vol. iv. pp. 167—169. 

t It is generally supposed, that the beautiful stucco-work of the Alhamra was composed of 
gypsum mixed with whites of eggs and oil. 



(.1. 



but the gilding is now almost entirely effaced. From this en- 
trance our view was taken, as affording the best view of this 
" P?^oud Saloon,'' as the Arabian writers term it, and which 
is admirably adapted to the display of Moorish grandeur. 
Over the principal door is an Arabic inscription, which ap- 
pears to have been executed in a style corresponding to the 
splendour of the rest of the edifice : it is taken, with the 
exception of the concluding sentence, from the Koran, Sura, 
(or chapter) 91, Ayat (or verse) 1-7. "By the sun and its 
rising brightness; by the moon, when she followetli him; 
by the day, when he sheweth his splendour; by the night, 
" when it covereth him with darkness; by the heaven, and 
" him who created it; by the earth, and him who spread 
"it forth; by the soul, and him who completely formed 
" it; there is no other God but God."* On each side of 
this door is a small niche, in which the Moors left their 
babouches or slippers, before they entered the royal presence : 
these niches are likewise decorated with their respective 
inscriptions. 

On entering the Hall of the Ambassadors, the eye is lost 
in astonishment, at the variety of ornament, the elegance of 
execution, and exquisite taste, which characterise every part 
of it: and, if thus superb even in its present deserted state, 
how resplendent must this " Golden Saloon" have been, 
when the sovereign, arrayed in all the pomp of Oriental 
magnificence, assembled his brilliant court to give audience to 
the representatives of the neighbouring monarchs ! by com- 
paring the following description with our plate, the reader 
may be enabled to form a pretty correct idea of this costly 
apartment. The whole floor is inlaid with mosaic: the same 
kind of ornament, but of different patterns, covers every part 
of the walls, interspersed with flowers and Arabic inscriptions, 
executed in porcelain with exquisite skill, so as to unite and 
harmonize exactly with the stucco ornaments which every 
where abound. On the cornices above the mosaics, and be- 
neath the usual inscription, " there is no God but God," the 
piety or superstition of the modern Spaniards has led them to 
introduce the crucifix : it is however so dexterously inserted 
as not materially to injure the general effect. The height and 
boldness of its arched ceihng are particularly worthy of ob- 
servation: and the almost innumerable chiligon mosaics, 
knot and other ornaments, must be seen, to form a tolerable 
idea of their splendour. Gold, silver, azure, purple, and 
other brilliant colours, all seem to strive which shall appear 
most conspicuous on the stuccoed facets. Inscii ptions occur 
every where, so that the Alhamra in general, and this apart- 
ment m particular, has not improperly been called a collection 
o[ fugitive pieces. Such of these inscriptions and mosaics, as 
have best survived the ravages of time and neglect, are en- 
graved in some of the following engravings, and by com- 
paring them with the perspective view given in the plate just 
described, the lover of antiquities may be enabled to form 
some faint idea of the departed glories and splendours of the 
Hall of the Ambassadors. 

* See Sale's Koran, p. 492, 4to. edit. ^ See Plates LVI. to LXI. infra. 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE 



ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



15 



PLATE XLI. 

SECTION AND ELEVATION OF THE INTERIOR OF THE GOLDEN SALOON. 

After the copious description given to the preceding plate, 
little remains to be added here. We have in tJiis engraving 
a nearer view of the windows, together with the ceiling, and 
some of the ornaments. The walls are of pebbles and red-clay 
intermixed. The height from the floor to the centre of the 
ceiling is sixty feet four inches, English, and the cieling itself 
is of a very curious construction : it is composed of strong 
pieces of wood in admirable preservation, which are keyed 
and fastened together in such a manner, that, on pressing the 
feet on the centre of the summit, the whole vibrates like a 
tight rope. Above the ceiling is the roof, which could not be 
exhibited in our plate : it is formed of strong scantling of ten 
inches square deal, and laid close together, with cross braces 
at the angles. Upon these rafters the bricks are laid, and upon 



them is a coating of lime, over which the bricks and tiles 
are placed, that form the exterior of the roof. The windows 
command a most delightful and extensive prospect. At the 
foot of the palace, the Darro winds its fertilizing streams : 
and from this place the view takes in the greater part of the 
city, together with the verdant mountains which rise above 
it, and of the charming hill which forms its base. Well 
might Charles V. exclaim, as he is reported to have done,* 
on his first entering the Tower of Comares, when he visited 
this sumptuous Hall, and beheld the magnificent prospect 
from its windows: — " I would rather," said he, " have this 
" place for a sepulchre, than the Alpuj arras for an inheri- 
" tance ! " — Alluding to the last Moorish King of Granada ; 
who, on the suirender of this fortress, stipulated for a resi- 
dence in the Alpujarras mountain, which lies on the east side 
of the Sierra Nevada. 

* See Pedraza, Antiguedad de Granada, p. 16. 



Having thus conducted the reader through the numerous apartments of this palace of enchantment, it remains that we present to 
his notice a more detailed account of its various ornaments than could be offered in the preceding descriptions. We shall, there- 
fore, invite his attention first to the paintings and vases, which formerly decorated its walls ; and, having next given such of its 
various mosaics, inscriptions, and ornaments, as continue in the best state of preservation, we shall proceed to describe the royal 
villa of Al Generalife, and the other leliques of Moorish magnificence at Granada. 



PLATE XLII. 

A MOORISH BATTLE-PIECE, FROM A PAINTING IN THE ALHAMRA. 

At the extremity of the Court of the Lions^ and contiguous to 
the apartments occupied by the curate of the Alhamra, are 
three historical paintings, fixed in the ceiling of a recess : 
they are finished with a considerable degree of strength, and 
much stiffness prevails in the figures and countenances. 
Mr. Swinburne is of opinion, that they are not the work of 
a Moorish artist, but were executed by some Spanish painter 
shortly after the concjuest of Granada : he rests his conjecture 
chiefly on the anathema denounced by the Koran against all 
representations of animated beings. But it is well known 
that the Spanish- Arab Khalifs disregarded this prohibition: 
the lions, which support the celebrated fountain that bears 
their name (See Plates XXXIII. and XXXIV.), are a proof 
full in point ; and, in addition to this evidence, we know 
that one Khalif * placed the statue of a favourite mistress over 
the magnificent palace which he had erected for her use ; 
while others, in defiance of the Prophet's mandate, caused 
their images to be stamped on their coins. -'r There is, there- 
fore, every reason to believe that the paintings in question, 
are really the work of an Arabian artist. 

As to the subject of our plate, nothing certain is known; 

it forms the larger half of one of the paintings, and is evidently 

* Abdurralimrm HI. See tlic " History of the Mahometan Empire in Spain," p. 1T3. 
•\- See this subject discussed in the same work, p. 273. 



a tournament or battle-piece ; but on what occasion it took 
place, it were useless to conjecture. It is, however, valuable, 
in common with the other paintings, as shewing the costume 
of the Spanish Arabs, during the zenith of the Mahometan 
Empire in Spain. 



PLATE XLIII. 

A LION HUNT, FROM AN ARABIAN PAINTING IN THE ALHAMRA. 

This plate is part of a large picture, representing lion and 
boar hunting. In the original, the horseman is accompanied 
by two or three ill-shaped dogs, which are here omitted, as 
we have selected only those parts which are in the best state 
of preservation. 



PLATE XLIV. 

A BOAR-HUNT, FROM A PAINTING IN THE ALHAMRA. 

This subject is part of the same painting : the compartment 
adjoining, which, being somewhat decayed, we have not 
copied, represents the boar as killed, and in the act of being 
tied on the back of a horse by four attendants, previously to 
its being carried off. 



16 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE ALEfAMRA AT GRANADA. 



PLATE XLV. 

AN ARABIAN COUNCIL, FROM A PAINTING IN THE ALHAMRA. 

This is supposed to be a Divan or Council : it forms part of 
another painting wJiicli is somewhat impaired. The princi- 
pal personage is easily recognized, hy the splendour of his 
apparel. 



PLATE XLVL 

MOORISH COSTUMES, FROM AN ARABIAN PAIxNTING IN THE ALHAMRA. 

This engraving is copied from a painting in the north side of 
the lower recess, abovementioned. It is supposed to repre- 
sent the entrance of some princess ; and the Cicerone of the 
Alhamra invariably refer it to the story of the Sultana and her 
four Christian Knights (see page 13, supra). The men are 
young and comely; the women are young and handsome, 
with simple countenances. The horse is superbly capari- 
soned ; his harness being studded with gold, and what is 
designed for the stirrup, being composed of the same precious 
metal. The dress of the principal female is very elep-ant and 
costly. 



PLATES XLVIL and XLVIIL 

ARABIAN VASES AND NICHES, PRESERVED IN THE ALHAMRA. 

These precious memorials of Arabian skill and taste, were 
discovered in the vaults beneath the royal apartments, conti- 
guous to the Plaza de los Algibes, or Scjuare of the Cisterns. 
They are of porcelain richly enamelled with gold and azure 
foliages and characters : the vase in Plate XLVIII. is further 
decorated with two antelopes. The inscription on the vase, 
delineated in Plate XL VI I. is the same which occurs, times 
without number, in every part of the edifice : viz. JVa la 
ghalib illah llah, that is, " Ajid there is no Conqueror but God.'' 
The inscriptions on the vase in Plate XLVIII. are one sen- 
tence frequently repeated : but as the discriminative points are 
invariably omitted, this sentence cannot be determined with 
certainty. Perhaps it may be &3 ^lli^OJ, that is, let amthedem 
lahu, — " (Ihere are) no likenesses to Him (viz. to God). 



PLATE XLIX. 

MOSAIC PAVEMENT IN THE DRESSING ROOM OF THE SULTANA. 

The apartment, whicli is paved with this elegant mosaic, is 
usually called El Tocador. or the Dressing Room of the 
Sultana : it is a cabinet about six feet square, with a window 
on each side, surrounded with a balcony three feet broad, 



whose roof is supported at intervals by columns of white 
marble. The prospect \vhich tins closet commands is truly 
enchanting. In one of its corners, there is a large scpiare 
marble flag, perforated with holes, through which, it is said, 
the fi-agrant essences ascended hom the chamber beneath, co 
perfume the person of the Sultana. By some antiquarians, 
however, this room is supposed to have been the oratory of 
the palace, from the inscriptions which decorate it, and also 
from the circumstance of the principal window fronting the 
east. But, whatever was the real design of the present 
apartment, the effect of its mosaic pavement is very rich : 
the gold, Ijlack, scarlet, green, and blue colours, are admi- 
rably combined. 



PLATE L. 

MOSAIC ORNAMENT IN THE NORTH SIDE OF THE LIONs"' COURT. 

PLATE LL 

MOSAIC ORNAMENT IN THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE LiONs' COURT. 

These mosaics are in the jambs of recesses on the north and 
south sides of the Lions' Court : their effect is extremely 
beautiful. The colours are bkick, blue, gold, green, scarlet, 
and white. 



PLATE LIL 

MOSAIC IN DADO OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS. 

The characters on the shields, introduced in this plate, are 
the often repeated inscription, " There is no Conqueror bid 
God.'' The colours are gold, black, blue, scarlet, and green. 



PLATE LIII. 

MOSAIC IN DADO OF THE DOOR OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS. 

PLATE LIV. 

MOSAIC IN DADO OF RECESS IN THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS. 

Gold, white, black, purple, blue, and green, are here inter- 
mixed in gorgeous beauty : the appearance of these mosaics 
is truly magnificent. 



PLATE LV. 

MOSAIC IN THE HALL OF THE ABENCERRAGES. 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



17 



PLATE LVI. 

MOSAIC IN DADO OF THE GOLDEN SALOON, OR HALL OF AMBASSADORS. 

PLATES LVIL and LVIIL 

MOSAICS IN DADO OF WINDOW IN THE GOLDEN SALOON. 

The ornament round the mosaic in Plate LVIII. is in stucco, 
the colours are gold and green on a black ground ; and pro- 
duce a neat elFect, when contrasted with the rich and 
variegated display of the other mosaics in this splendid 
apartment. 



PLATE LIX. 

MOSAIC IN DADO OF BALCONY IN THE GOLDEN SALOON. 

PLATE LX. 

CEILING OF GALLERY IN THE GOLDEN SALOON. 

PLATE LXL 

MOSAIC IN DADO OF WINDOW, IN THE NORTH SIDE OF THE 

GOLDEN SALOON. 

PLATE LXIL 

MOSAIC IN DADO OF THE EAST SIDE OF THE TOWER OF COMARES. 

The prevailing colour of this mosaic is green, intermixed 
with yellow or gold, blue, white, and black. For an account 
of the Tower of Comares, see Plate XII. fig. 13, page 8, 
supra. 



PLATE LXIIL 

MOSAIC IN PORTICO OF THE GENERALIFE. 

The royal villa of Al Generalife, or Generaliffe, as it is very 
frequently written, is delineated in Plates LXXXIX. to 
XCV. infra: this mosaic is introduced here, in order to 
bring together the various specimens of Arabian skill in the 
mosaic art. It is not too much to affirm that, for variety of 
combination and delicacy of tints, they are fully equal, if not 
superior, to any Roman mosaics which have come down to 
our times. The stars, in our present engraving, are alter- 
nately scarlet and yellow, and scarlet and black ; and the 
hexagons are white, the intermediate spaces being gold, 
black, green, blue, and white. The stucco ornament, which 
sorrounds this mosaic, is gold and green, on a black ground. 



PLATE LXIV. 

A MOSAIC DADO, FROM A FRAGMENT IN THE ALHAMRA. 

It is black and white ; the effect, though simple, is uncom- 
monly striking. 



PLATE LXV. 

VARIOUS MOSAICS, FROM THE ALHAMRA. 

The prevailing colours in these mosaics, which are collected 
from different parts of the Alhamra, are gold, blue, white, 
and black. The border in the lower part of the plate, is 
copied from a dado in the south side of the Golden Saloon. 



PLATE LXVL 

AN ARABIAN ORNAMENT AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE TOWER 

OF COMARES. 

The ground of the letters, in this plate, is blue ; the orna- 
ment in the circle is also blue, and the principal lines are 
gold. This ornament occurs in the side of the door at the 
entrance of the tower abovementioned. The translations of 
the inscriptions are as follow : on the left at the top, and on 
the right hand, at the bottom of this plate, ^ — " T'he Kingdom 
is God's,'' on the right hand, at the top, — " "the Power is 
God's." And on the left hand, at the bottom, — " Durability 
is God's." 



PLATE LXVn. 

ORNAMENT IN THE WALL AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE TOWER 

OF COMARES. 

The ground is light blue ; the foliage, green ; and the broad 
foliage, gold. The effect of the whole is superb. 



PLATE LXVIIL 

ORNAMENT IN THE SIDE OF DOORWAY, AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE 

TOWER OF COMARES. 

PLATE LXIX. 

PANNEL ORNAMENT IN THE SIDE OF DOORWAY, AT THE ENTRANCE 

OF THE TOWER OF COMARES. 

The ground of these ornaments is light blue in the broad 
parts, and red in the narrow parts. The inscriptions in 
Cufic characters are, " Glory to our Lord the Sultan, Abu 
Abdillah. 



18 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE 



ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



PLATE LXX. 

A CEILING IN OUTLINE, IN THE TOWER OF COMARES. 

The wonderful combinations of the Arabian artists are here 
exhibited to great advantage : the inscriptions around the 
ceihng are the same which present themselves in other parts 
of the edifice, times without number : the circular ornaments 
disposed around the ceihng, are white upon a blue ground. 



PLATE LXXL 

AN ARABIAN ORNAMENT IN THE TOWER OF COMARES. 

The dark shaded parts in this ornament are red ; those marked 
thus 1 1 1 1 are red and white ; the rest is white upon a light 
blue ground ; and the effect of the whole is truly beautiful. 



PLATE LXXII. 

ORNAMENT IN THE GOLDEN SALOON, OR HALL OF AMBASSADORS. 

This ornament occurs on the wall of the Golden Saloon; 
the ground of the inscriptions, which have already been re- 
peatedly given, is light blue ; some parts of the ornament are 
gilt, and others are coloured with vermillion. 



PLATES LXXin. AND LXXIV. 

ORNAMENTS IN THE WALL OF TWO WINDOWS, IN THE NORTH FRONT 

OF THE GOLDEN SALOON. 

PLATES LXXV. LXXVL and LXXVIL 

ORNAMENTS IN THE SIDES OF WINDOWS, IN THE GOLDEN SALOON. 

All these ornaments are gold, upon a light blue ground. 



PLATE LXXVIIL 

A PANNEL ORNAMENT AND ARABESQUE IN THE ALHAMRA. 

Fig. 1. Is a pannel ornament, from the Golden Saloon, similar in execution to those 

dehneated in the immediately preceding plates. 
Fig. 2. Is an elegant arabesque, copied from the side of a square fountain, placed 

against a wall in the Alhamra near the Torre de la Velha (see Plate XI. fig. 5). 

The animals are lions, fawns, and badgers, executed in stucco, and in a style 

highly honourable to the Arabian artist. 



PLATE LXXIX. 

A PANNEL ORNAMENT AND INSCRIPTIONS IN THE ALHAMRA. 

Fig. I Is one half of a pannel on the side of a door in the Court and Fountain of 
Lions. 

Fio-. 2. Is an inscription of very frequent occurrence in this edifice. The import of 



the middle compartment is : " Glory to our Lord the Sultan Ahu Ahdillah, 
son of our Lord the Sultan, Ahu-l-Hujjdj.'' The translation of the compart- 
ment at each end is, " And there is no Conqueror hit God." 

Fig. 3. Is an inscription, from the wall in the first court of the Moorish palace ; the 
ground is white, and the letters are black. The -translation of the centi al com- 
partment is, " P7-osperity and power, and splendid victory to our Lord Ahu 
Ahdillah, commander of the Moslems." The sentence at each end is, " And 
there is no Conqueror hut God." 

Fig. 4. Is an inscription in the window in the middle of the Golden Saloon : the trans- 
lation of it is as follows. 

" There is no God but God, the Sovereign, the True, the Manifest. Mu- 
hammad is the just, the faithful, messenger of God. T flee to God for protection 
from Satan, the pelted with stones. In the name of God, the niei-ciful, the 
forgiving : there is no God but He, the living, the eternal : sleep nor slumber 
seizeth Him. To Him (belongeth) whatever is in the heavens, and whatever 
is in the earth : who is there who shall intercede with Him except by His 
permission ? He knoweth what is before them and what is behind them ; and 
they comprehend not of His wisdom, except what He pleaseth : He hath ex- 
tended His throne, the heavens and the earth ; the protection of which incom- 
modeth Him not : and, he is the exalted, the great ! There is no forcing in 
the faith : truly, righteousness is distinguished from error. He, therefore, who 
disbelieveth in (the idol) Tagut, and beheveth in God, hath taken hold of a 
sure handle, which cannot be broken. God heareth, knoweth, The truth of 
God." 

This inscription consists of various detached sentences and verses from the 
Koran ; so that, notwithstanding part of it is obliterated, as expressed in our 
engraving, the deficiency is supplied by referring to that book. The foliage in 
the centre of this inscription is very elegant. 



PLATE LXXX. 

CUFIC INSCRIPTIONS IN THE GOLDEN SALOON, OR HALL 

OF AMBASSADORS. 

Translation of these Inscriptions. 
In the centre is the common motto of the edifice — " And 
there is no Conqueror but God.'' It is in letters about sixteen 
inches high, in the frieze over the upper windows in the 
Golden Saloon. The letters are white ; the ornament, light 
blue ; and the back ground is vermillion. The foliage is 
that of the Tribulus terrestris L. or small caltrops, a plant 
indigenous in Spain ; and the effect of the whole is very rich 
and beautiful. The inscription at the right hand extremity 
of the plate is—" Praise to God for the blessing of Islamism!'' 
That, on the end to the left, is — " Praise to God alone — 
Praise to God!'' 

The hues at the top and bottom of the plate, consist of six 
verses, forming the poem which surrounded the throne of the 
empire in the Golden Saloon. For a translation of this 
poem, see the " History of the Mahometan Empire in Spain," 
Appendix, No. 10. 



PLATE LXXXI. 

CUFIC INSCRIPTIONS, AND ORNAMENT, IN THE GOLDEN SALOON. 

The ornament in the centre, is of a similar description with 
some of those delineated in the preceding plates : the trans- 
lations of the inscriptions are as follow. 

At the top, on the left hand^ — " The power (belongs) to 
God." The inscription at the top, on the right hand, is 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



19 



doubtful, and is perhaps to be read different ways, " To Him," 
that is, to God. 

At the bottom, on the left hand side, — " Glory to our- 
Lord the Sultan Abu Abdillah Alghani Billah!'' And at 
the bottom, on the right hand side, is—" God is the best pro- 
tection: and He is the Merciful^ the Forgiving. God, the 
Almighty, hath truly said,'' 



PLATE LXXXII. 

CUFIC INSCRIPTIONS IN THE GOLDEN SALOON. 

Translations. 

On the lower edge' of the first scroll,-" 0 God, Thine the 
praise for ever! 0 God, and Thine the thanks for ever!'" On 
the upper and lower edge of the second scroll, regarding it on 
either side, may be read alike, " 0 God, Thine the praise (for 
ever, 0 God!)'' There is, however, some doubt as to the 
correctness of the words included in the parenthesis in this 
second scroll. 

On the lower edge* of the third or last scroll, — " Praise 
to God for the blessing of Islamism /" 



PLATE LXXXIII 

THE FIRST SIX VERSES OF THE INSCRIPTION ON THE BASON OF THE 

FOUNTAIN OF LIONS. 

PLATE LXXXIV. 

THE LAST SIX VERSES OF THE INSCRIPTION ON THE BASON OF THE 

FOUNTAIN OF LIONS. 

For a view of the Bason of the Lions' Fountain, see Plates 
XXXIV, and XXXV. ; and for its description see pages 12, 
13, supra. For an entire translation of these inscriptions, see 
the " History of the Mahometan Empire in Spain," Appendix, 
No. 2, page v. The characters of these, as well as of the 
following incriptions, are Cufic, and of the most elegant 
forms. 



PLATE LXXXV. 

CUFIC INSCRIPTIONS IN THE TOWER OF COMARES. 

The first four Hues in this plate are the third, fourth, fifth, 
and sixth verses of the Arabian poem ; which is given in the 
" History of the Mahometan Empire in Spain," Appendix, 
No. 11, page xiii. The inscription itself occurs on the south 
side of the Golden Saloon, or Hall of Ambassadors. The 

* It seems probable, that the flourishes on the upper edges of these scrolls, like that of the 
middle one, are intended for words : but, if such be their meaning, no idea has yet been formed 
of the characters represented. 



last three lines are the second, third, and sixth verses of the 
poem. No. 13 in the same Appendix, page xvi. They have 
been copied from the space over the resemblances of two 
windows in an alcove on the outside of the Tower of 
Comares. 



PLATE LXXXVL 

PANNEL ORNAMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS IN THE HALL OF THE 

TWO SISTERS. 

Figures 1. and 2. are pannel ornameuts, from the Sala de dos Hermanas, or Hall of 
the Two Sisters, of which a view is given in Plate XXXVIII. page 13, supra. 

Figures 3, 4, and 5, are respectively the sixth, tenth, and eleventh verses of the poem 
No. 12, in the Appendix above referred to, page xiv. They are copied from 
three of the elegant circles which adorn the Hall of the Two Sisters. 



PLATE LXXXVII. 

MISCELLANEOUS PARTS AND ORNAMENTS IN THE ALHAMRA. 

These are copied from various parts of this noble palace, 
and will convey to the eye a better idea of the minute and 
diversified elegance which characterizes its almost innu- 
merable ornaments. The line of Arabian ciphers is particu- 
larly interesting, as exhibiting the primitive forms of those 
figures, for which we are indebted to the Spanish Arabs. 



PLATE LXXXVIII. 

CORNICES, CAPITALS, AND COLUMNS, IN THE ALHAMRA. 

Figures 1, 3, 4, 5, &c. in this plate, are fragments of capitals and columns, &c. from the 
Pateo de Leones, or Lions' Fountain, which is delineated in Plates XXXIII. 
to XXXVII. supra. 

Fig. 2. Is the splendid cornice and frieze of the Loggia of the GenerahfFe, which ap- 
pears in Plate XCII. infra. The effect of this is very rich. The line of Arabic 
characters is black, on a white ground; the dentellated line beneath that, 
is black and white ; the space below is red, and the line of cords is black and 
white ; the foliage is grey, relieved with white, on a red ground, and the middle 
line is white. Below that is a line of black cord, on a white ground, which is 
followed by a line of red ornaments on a white ground. Rich stucco-work 
succeeds to this, and below it are the characters of the first line repeated, con- 
sisting- of the favourite motto—" There is no Conqueror but God." The effect 
of the whole is very rich. 

Fig. 6. Is a canopy over a door in the Lions' Court. 

Fig. 7- Is a beautiful mosaic column, that supports the circular roof in the interior of 
the Zancarron, or Sanctuary of the Koran ; the gate of which is delineated in 
Plate VI. supra. The colours are black, white, and a faint yellow or gold. 
The effect is grand. 

Fig. 8. The words TATO m5ta (Tanto Monta), represented in this figure, are very 
frequently repeated on stucco, in relief, in the Pateo de Leones, or Lions' 
Fountain, which is supposed to have been repaired in the time of Ferdinand 
and Isabella. These words may be interpreted equality ; for the latter anxiously 
maintained, that her power in the exercise of the royal authority was equal to 
that of Ferdinand. Perhaps it is not saying too much of that princess, that 
she deserved it ; and that her wisdom and courage confirmed the right which 
she derived from her birth. 



20 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE 



ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



PLATE LXXXIX. 

A VIEW OF THE ROYAL VILLA OF GENERALIFFE AT GRANADA. 

The way from the Alhamra to the GeneralifFe is by a very 
low gate, which favoured the escape of Abu Abdillah, the 
last Moorish sovereign, on the capture of Granada by Ferdi- 
nand, misnamed the Catholic. The signification of the Arabic 
term Al Generalife, or Generaliffe, as it is very frequently 
written, is, the House of Love or of Pleasure, a name very 
appropriately given to this charming edifice. It is situated 
on the side of a lofty mountain opposite to the Alhamra 
(whence our view is taken), — a spot favoured by nature and 
improved by art. Concerning the precise time when this 
villa was founded, historians and antiquarians are by no 
means agreed : but it was probably erected about the seventh 
century of the Hijra, corresponding with the tJiirteenth cen- 
tury of the Christian iEra. The situation of the Generahffe 
is healthy, and the prospect it commands, is truly delightful. 
The distribution of the edifice, and of the gardens annexed 
to it, is admirably adapted to the shelving ground : externally, 
nothing more than mere convenience appears to have been 
considered : but, internally, the decorations are in no respect 
inferior to those of the Alhamra. For additional particulars 
relative to the architecture, &:c. of the Geneialiffe, the reader 
is referred to the " History of the Mahometan Empire in 
Spaing page 199. 



PLATE XC. 

A GROUND PLAN OF THE GENERALIFFE AT GRANADA. 
Explanation of the Letters of Reference. 

A. Advanced Parts. 

B. The Inner Gallery, commanding the view of the gardens, which is given in Plate XCV. 

C. C. C. C. C. C. Ten-aces and Aqueducts, built by the Arabs in the open air. 

D. D. D. D. The surrounding country. 



PLATE XCL 

ELEVATION AND GROUND PLAN OF THE PORTICO OF THE GENERALIFFE. 

PLATE XCIL 

A FRONT VIEW OF THE PORTICO OF THE GENERALIFFE. 

These two plates exhibit a correct view of the symmetry 
which marks the Portico of the Generaliffe. The inscrip- 
tion, which runs along the top, is the same which has already 
occurred so frequently, viz. " jlnd there is no Conqueror but 
God."" The columns are of white marble : all the ornamental 
work over the arches is composed of limestone, one foot and 
three quarters thick, and is hollow in the inside, which 
makes the perforated parts of a deep black. The five circular 
headed windows in the middle, are also hollow. The mosaic 



at the bottom, reaches about four feet from the ground, 
and has a rich eflFect : it is delineated on a large scale in 
Plate LXIII. supra. The colours, which are black, blue, 
gold, scarlet, and green, have a very rich effect. There are 
thirty-three steps to the top of the floor over this front : the 
mezzanino over it, is eight feet two inches in height. It is 
probable, that this front was formerly like that of the Arcade, 
with two stones and a mezzanino, in the Pateo del Agua, of 
which we have given engravings in Plates XXIX. XXX. and 
XXXI. supra. Just before the author drew the present view, 
the whole had been luhite washed! — a barbarous modern im- 
provement, which has completely destroyed the sharpness of 
the ornaments. 



PLATE XCIII. 

A TRANSVERSE SECTION OF THE ROYAL VILLA OF THE GENERALIFFE. 

The interior structure of the pile is here seen to considerable 
advantage. In addition to the observations already made, it 
may be remarked, that the wood-work and stucco decorations, 
are exactly of the same design and workmanship as those of 
the Alhamra. The wood-work is made of nogal^ or Spanish 
chestnut : the decay of three hundred years is not visible in 
it. It is probable that the Moors coated their wood with a 
composition, obnoxious to insects : t]ie author was informed 
at Granada, that the composition employed was colle and 
Almaqu, that is, size or glue, and a reddish earth resembhng 
the Etruscan colour, which is exactly the colour of the plain 
part of the wood. The black lines, which ornament the 
wood- work, as represented in this and other plates descriptive 
of the Generahffe, appear to have been traced with a hot 
iron : it is not unlikely, that the Moors charred all the wood 
they made use of, in order to render it more durable. The 
larger mosaics, which appear in the lower part of tliis plate, 
are similar to that represented in Plate XLIX. supra. 



PLATE XCIV. 

A CEILING IN THE GENERALIFFE. 

This is a chefd'oeuvre of Arabian workmanship; as the 
observations on the preceding engraving are applicable to 
this plate, a careful inspection of it will convey a better idea 
ol the dehcacy and taste of the artist, than any additional 
description can possibly offer. 



PLATE XCV. 

A PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE GARDEN OF THE GENERALIFFE. 

This view is drawn from the spot marked B. in Plate XC. 
at the bottom of the canal which waters the garden. It 
conveys an accurate idea of the place, of the beauty of its 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE 



ALHAMRA AT GRANADA. 



2,1 



architecture, and of the fertihty of its vegetation. Nothing 
can be conceived, better adapted than the gardens of the 
Generaliffe, to promote the enjoyment of all those refined 
gallantries and luxuries, for which the Moors were so 
celebrated. 

The gardens are planted in the Chinese style ; cypress 
trees appear in various parts ; and many of them, venerable 
for their age, now afford to the Christian inhabitants of 
Spain that shelter which they formerly offered to its Moorish 
sovereigns. A river, the same which supplies the Alhamra 
with water, runs through these gardens : on each side of its 
banks trees are planted at intervals, whose tops are joined 
like arches. In the middle of the gardens is a lofty circular 
summer-house formed of canes, nearly thirty feet in height, 
and somewhat resembling a dome. The excellence of these 
covered ways depends upon their being lofty and spacious. 
In all the Moorish bowers, which the author has seen, the 
same rule is observed : they are lofty and spacious, while 
ours are low and narrow. These broad bowers have a very 
noble effect : that of the Generaliffe, with the water, is in- 
deed enchanting; it imposes upon the sight, making the 
space appear longer than it really is. At the side of the 
gardens is planted the blooming laurel, a tree to which the 
Moors were extremely partial, while box fences inclose beds 
of roses. The whole is in perpetual bloom, as most of the 
trees are evergreens, sheltered on three sides, and exposed to 
a southern aspect. 

The prospect from the windows, which are seen at the end 
of the Garden in our plate, is truly sublime. Beneath, flows 



the river Darro ; at the foot of the Generaliffe rises the 
quarter of the city of Granada, called the Albayzin ; and, 
further on, appears the beautiful, extensive, and fertile f^ega, 
or Plain of Granada, encircled by clusters of dusky 
mountains. 



PLATE XCVI. 

ELEVATION OF THE CASA DE CARBON, OR HOUSE OF CHARCOAL, 

AT GRANADA. 

PLATE XCVn. 

PLAN OF THE CASA DE CARBON. 

The Casa de Carbon, of which these two engravings present 
the elevation and plan, as its name imports, appears to have 
been a warehouse or mart for the sale of charcoal. It is si- 
tuated in the city of Granada, and offers a favourable speci- 
men of the architecture of the private Moorish edifices : on 
this account, it may form an appropriate conclusion to the 
present work, in which the author has endeavoured to draw 
aside the veil of Oriental secrecy, and admit the English 
reader into all the privacies of Arabian life. The beloved 
motto of the Moslems — " And there is no Conqueror but 
God " — is introduced wherever the artist could possibly find 
a place for it. 



THE END. 



JUST PUBLISHED, 



Elegantly printed in one Volume Quarto, with a Map shewing the principal Conquests 
of the Arabs under theKhalifs or Successors of Mahomet; Price 1/. 16*. in boards, 

THE 

HISTORY 

OF THE 

MAHOMETAN EMPIRE IN SPAIN: 

CONTAINING 

A GENERAL HISTORY OF THE ARABS, 

THEIR INSTITUTIONS, CONQUESTS, LITERATURE, ARTS, SCIENCES, 

AND MANNERS, 

TO TPIE EXPULSION OF THE MOORS. 



DESIGNED AS 

AN INTRODUCTION 

TO 

THE ARABIAN ANTIQUITIES OF SPAIN, 

BY JAMES CAVANAH MURPHY, 

ARCHITECT. 

PRINTED FOR T. CADELL AND W. DA VIES, STRAND, LONDON. 




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